File Name: compare and contrast crime and deviance .zip
Deviance and crime violate the norms and the laws of societies, respectively.
Deviance and crime violate the norms and the laws of societies, respectively. These two concepts are often used interchangeably but are basically distinct. In some cases, they can overlap.
For instance, deviant behaviors can be regarded as criminal and the converse, although rare, can also be true. In a nutshell, crime is an act of contravening the laws of the society as enacted by the government, whereas deviance refers to an act of contravening the societal norms and standards. This article highlights the key differences between crime and deviance. As aforementioned, deviance refers to a behavior that is in violation of societal norms.
Such behavior is considered to be immoral and abnormal in line with the agreed norms and standards of a certain culture. But, deviance can be a complex concept because it varies per societal group, place or time.
It also differs from one believe system to the other. In order to form a harmonious living environment and contain the behaviors of people, societies opt to subscribe to certain code of conducts. These have existed from the primitive societies and still reinforced today. Unlike laws, societal norms are not written down. Instead, everyone is expected to be alert of their existence in a specific society.
Contravention of societal norms is seldom punishable by law unless it overlaps with criminal offences. For instance, in some countries prostitution is illegal and also deviant in the societies. The law can thus take its course. Where the behavior is solely considered deviant, society leaders can put pressure on the perpetrator as a control of deviant behaviors but have no coercive power to punish.
Examples of deviance behaviors include prostitution, walking in the streets naked, house breaking, cross-dressing, transsexual, transgender, and many more depending on the society or the region where one resides. In a nudist environment, for example, it may be acceptable to walk on the streets nude, and may be seen as a strange attire if you walk with suits in that environment.
Another example goes to countries in Africa where female genital mutilation is acceptable for circumcision where in America it may be considered as deviant. Crime is an act of contravening the statues enacted by legislations after lengthy debates on what constitutes a criminal offense and what penalties to institute for certain crimes.
The sociological discipline that concerns itself with criminal studies is termed criminology. The study can also cover the concepts of deviance that overlaps with criminal offenses. It is relatively difficult to discern criminal studies from deviance studies Bader et al.
Criminal laws are documented in constitutions of societies and anyone found contravening them shall be liable to a fine, imprisonment or death penalty in some countries such as Botswana. In a nutshell, criminal offenses can be categorized into personal offenses and property offenses. Other categories include victimless crimes where there are no obvious complainants, organized crimes committed by organized groups in illegal dealings under legitimate enterprises, and white-collar crimes that are committed by individuals possessing a high social status.
Victimless crimes may include prostitution and drug dealings, whereas white-collar crimes may include tax frauds, and organized crimes may include the shipment of illegal products.
Once the criminal contraventions have been documented, police and the justice system will be mandated to enforce them using their coercive power. The courts will determine the amount of penalty or punishment to issue to a perpetrator. In contrast, the society has no a coercive power to penalize or punish any individual if they are in contravention of the societal norms.
There are mild and severe crimes. The mild ones can include a mere shoplifting or beating someone while the severe crimes can include murder, stealing large sums of money, and sexual harassment. Had there be no laws containing criminal activities, societies would be in havoc with others deliberately murdering other individuals, house-breaking or robbing financial institutions.
The law enforcement officers and the judicial system play a pivotal role in ensuring that everyone is held accountable for the crimes committed. Likewise with criminal offenses, they differ from one society to another. For instance, other societies may accept consumption of marijuana while others criminalize it. Deviance entails the violation of social norms whereas crime entails the contravention of enacted laws of criminal offenses.
Deviance can be criminal or not, and crime is always punishable. Because deviance is dictated by societal norms, it bears no coercive power to punish those violating it whereas criminal offenses are punishable by law as determined by the judicial system. Police enforce arrest the perpetrators. Examples of deviance include walking nude in public places, offering or receiving prostitute services, wearing red suits during funerals, marriage underage.
The examples of crime include murder, rape, house-breaking, shoplifting, prostitution. As it already been reiterated, the deviant and criminal violations overlap and vary from one society to the other. For example, in some African countries it may be a norm for under 18 years teenagers to be married whereas in the United States is considered a crime.
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Notify me of followup comments via e-mail. Written by : Lusi Madisha. E, Hickey, J. V, Thompson, M. Society in Focus: An Introduction to Sociology. J, Lie, J. Cengage Learning 11 June User assumes all risk of use, damage, or injury. You agree that we have no liability for any damages. Definition of Deviance As aforementioned, deviance refers to a behavior that is in violation of societal norms.
In contrast, the society has no a coercive power to penalize or punish any individual if they are in contravention of the societal norms There are mild and severe crimes. Differences between Deviance and Crime Definition of Deviance and Crime Deviance entails the violation of social norms whereas crime entails the contravention of enacted laws of criminal offenses Criminal nature of Deviance and Crime Deviance can be criminal or not, and crime is always punishable.
Examples of Deviance and Crime Examples of deviance include walking nude in public places, offering or receiving prostitute services, wearing red suits during funerals, marriage underage.
Comparison Table for Deviance vs. Crime Summary of Deviance vs. Crime Deviance and crime are the two concepts that entail the violation of social norms and laws, respectively Deviance is not severe but crime can be mild to severe Deviant rules not written but criminal rules written Society has no coercive power to impose penalties or punishment on perpetrators whereas police and the judiciary have coercive power to punish and penalize the perpetrators Deviance differs from society to the other whereas crime is often universal but its punishments differ.
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The first as well as one of the most prominent labeling theorists was Howard Becker , who published his groundbreaking work Outsiders in A question became popular with criminologists during the mids: What makes some acts and some people deviant or criminal? In Blumer emphasized the way that meaning arises in social interaction through communication, using language and symbols. The focus of this perspective is the interaction between individuals in society, which is the basis for meanings within that society. These theorists suggested that powerful individuals and the state create crime by labeling some behaviours as inappropriate.
Sociological theories of deviance are those that use social context and social pressures to explain deviance. The study of social deviance is the study of the violation of cultural norms in either formal or informal contexts. Social deviance is a phenomenon that has existed in all societies with norms. Crime : The study of social deviance is the study of the violation of cultural norms in either formal or informal contexts.
Over the past several years, criminological theorists have shown renewed interest in the role of social institutions in the onset of crime. Recognition of the central role of institutions in trying to understand the societal response to crime is not new or surprising, given that the criminal justice system is itself an institution or an institutional subsystem. Social institutions influence how social life is regulated and facilitate the functioning of social systems. There are three interrelated dimensions of social institutions that are particularly relevant to the study of crime: institutional structure, institutional regulation or legitimacy, and institutional performance. Keywords: crime , social institutions , new institutionalism , criminal punishment , criminal justice system , social life , social systems , institutional structure , institutional regulation , institutional performance. In a series of illuminating studies, scholars have described the ways in which the societal response to criminal offending reflects the broader complex of social institutions and also the ways that punishment regimes themselves affect other components of the institutional order Garland , ; Simon ; Cavadino and Dignan ; Gottschalk ; Western ; Lacey
The field of crime and deviance is extensive and ever growing. A single collection of Examples of Differences Between Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal. Analyses. Available from mydowntownsmyrna.org Federal.
To a large extent, criminology and studies of deviance have developed along separate tracks although they show much overlap. Criminologists have typically limited themselves to issues about legality, crime, or crime-related phenomena. Students of deviance, on the other hand, have studied crime as well as a wider range of behaviors or conditions that are deviant by one or another of the definitions reviewed but are not necessarily illegal, such as suicide, alcoholism, homosexuality, mentally disordered behaviors, stuttering, and even such behaviors as public nose picking or flatulence, sectarian religious behaviors, and body mutilation. Hence, it is difficult to distinguish criminology clearly from studies of deviance Bader et al.
The concept of deviance is complex because norms vary considerably across groups, times, and places. In other words, what one group may consider acceptable, another may consider deviant. For example, in some parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Muslim Africa, women are circumcised. In America, the thought of female circumcision, or female genital mutilation as it is known in the United States, is unthinkable; female genital mutilation, usually done in unsanitary conditions that often lead to infections, is done as a blatantly oppressive tactic to prevent women from having sexual pleasure. A number of theories related to deviance and criminology have emerged within the past 50 years or so.
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