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Calculation Of Areas And Volumes In Surveying Pdf

calculation of areas and volumes in surveying pdf

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Published: 12.06.2021

In one of my previous articles, I discussed Midpoint Ordinate Rule and Average Ordinate Rule in detail with an example and listed out various important methods used for the calculation of areas in Surveying. In this article, we will deal with the next important method rule i.

Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional region , shape , or planar lamina , in the plane. Surface area is its analog on the two-dimensional surface of a three-dimensional object. Area can be understood as the amount of material with a given thickness that would be necessary to fashion a model of the shape, or the amount of paint necessary to cover the surface with a single coat. The area of a shape can be measured by comparing the shape to squares of a fixed size.

Surveying and Leveling

The main objective of the surveying is to compute the areas and volumes. Generally, the lands will be of irregular shaped polygons. There are formulae readily available for regular polygons like, triangle, rectangle, square and other polygons. But for determining the areas of irregular polygons, different methods are used. Earthwork computation is involved in the excavation of channels, digging of trenches for laying underground pipelines, formation of bunds, earthen embankments, digging farm ponds, land levelling and smoothening. In most of the computation the cross sectional areas at different interval along the length of the channels and embankments are first calculated and the volume of the prismoids are obtained between successive cross section either by trapezoidal or prismoidal formula. Calculation of area is carried out by any one of the following methods:.

These are the Practical Geometry class 8 Notes Mathematics prepared by team of expert teachers. In these notes solved exercises are also included. ReFLect Flip. Lesson planning. Lecture 1 Notes.

Area and Volume

As you recall from Chapter 1, geographic data represent spatial locations and non-spatial attributes measured at certain times. We defined "feature" as a set of positions that specifies the location and extent of an entity. Positions, then, are a fundamental element of geographic data. Like the letters that make up these words, positions are the building blocks from which features are constructed. A property boundary, for example, is made up of a set of positions connected by line segments. In theory, a single position is a "0-dimensional" feature: an infinitesimally small point from which 1-dimensional, 2-dimensional, and 3-dimensional features lines, areas, and volumes are formed. In practice, positions occupy 2- or 3-dimensional areas as a result of the limited resolution of measurement technologies and the limited precision of location coordinates.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Dec 31, A brief presentation about earthwork Lecturer : Khan Mohammad Shinwaray. SlideShare Explore Search You.

calculation of areas and volumes in surveying pdf

How to Use Planimeter in Surveying? Components of a Planimeter

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Volume calculation from grid spot levels using Excel VBA code. Page A site survey consisting of spot heights sampled at consistent grid intervals can be used to calculate the required volume to be excavated. The junctions of the square grid 20x20m were levelled and the spot heights are shown below.

Introduction Calculation for areas and volumes for earthworks, cuttings, embankments etc. Data needed for calculation Survey data and notes Area calculated from field notes Data converted into coordinates or plotted plan Existing map or plan e. Irregular areas Have at least one curved side Calculated using: Trapezoidal rule Simpsons rule. The figure above shows the field notes of the linear survey of a plot of ground, lying between a straight kerb PQ and a curved fence.

How to Calculate Acreage From a Survey

The cylinder surface area is the height times the perimeter of the circle base, plus the areas of the two bases, all added together. Surface area of a sphere.

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Они беззвучно молились, перебирая пальцами четки. Когда толпа приблизилась к мощным каменным стенам почти вплотную, Беккер снова попытался вырваться, но течение стало еще более интенсивным. Трепет ожидания, волны, сносившие его то влево, то вправо, закрытые глаза, почти беззвучное движение губ в молитве. Он попытался вернуться назад, но совладать с мощным потоком было невозможно - все равно как плыть против сильного течения могучей реки. Беккер обернулся. Двери оказались прямо перед ним, словно приглашая его принять участие в празднестве, до которого ему не было никакого дела.

 - Туда и обратно. Он был настолько погружен в свои мысли, что не заметил человека в очках в тонкой металлической оправе, который следил за ним с другой стороны улицы. ГЛАВА 18 Стоя у громадного окна во всю стену своего кабинета в токийском небоскребе, Нуматака с наслаждением дымил сигарой и улыбался. Он не мог поверить в свою необыкновенную удачу. Он снова говорил с этим американцем, и если все прошло, как было задумано, то Танкадо сейчас уже нет в живых, а ключ, который он носил с собой, изъят.

Оно показалось ей нескончаемо долгим. Наконец Стратмор заговорил. В его голосе слышалось скорее недоумение, чем шок: - Что ты имеешь в виду. - Хейл… - прошептала Сьюзан.  - Он и есть Северная Дакота.

Лампы зловеще гудели. На стене криво висело баскетбольное кольцо. Пол был уставлен десятками больничных коек. В дальнем углу, прямо под табло, которое когда-то показывало счет проходивших здесь матчей, он увидел слегка покосившуюся телефонную будку. Дай Бог, чтобы телефон работал, мысленно взмолился Беккер.

 Зюсс.  - Он пожал плечами. - Ладно, - нахмурилась Сьюзан.  - Попробуем еще… Кухня.

Calculation of Areas and Volumes

 - Если бы в игрушке Стратмора завелся вирус, он бы сразу мне позвонил. Стратмор человек умный, но о вирусах понятия не имеет. У него в голове ничего, кроме ТРАНСТЕКСТА.

4 Comments

  1. Chris H.

    15.06.2021 at 10:00
    Reply

    Computation of Areas of Regular Figures​​ in which C is the included angle between the sides a and b. The area of a triangle whose lengths of sides are known can be computed by the Formula: Area = √ where a, b, and c are the lengths of sides of the triangle and s = (a + b + c).

  2. Felicien S.

    16.06.2021 at 07:19
    Reply

    Into this category fall areas enclosed by traverse or chain survey lines. The results obtained for such areas will be exact since correct geometric equations and.

  3. Peggy J.

    16.06.2021 at 14:16
    Reply

    Unit CIV Surveying Calculating areas with the Trapezoidal Rule. calculate the areas of polygons and irregular figures and the volumes of irregular and.

  4. Holly P.

    18.06.2021 at 02:25
    Reply

    COMPUTATION OF AREA AND VOLUME. Aim: One of the main objectives of the surveying is to compute the areas and volumes. Generally, the lands will be of.

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