File Name: handbook of metrology and testing .zip
The principal motivation for this Handbook stems from the increasing demands of technology for measurement results that can be used globally. Measurements within a local laboratory or manufacturing facility must be able to be reproduced accurately anywhere in the world. The Commission of the European Union has expressed this as follows:.
Metrology is the scientific study of measurement. This led to the creation of the decimal-based metric system in , establishing a set of standards for other types of measurements. Several other countries adopted the metric system between and ; to ensure conformity between the countries, the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures BIPM was established by the Metre Convention. Metrology is divided into three basic overlapping activities. These overlapping activities are used in varying degrees by the three basic sub-fields of Metrology.
In each country, a national measurement system NMS exists as a network of laboratories, calibration facilities and accreditation bodies which implement and maintain its metrology infrastructure.
To facilitate fair trade, there must be an agreed-upon system of measurement. The ability to measure alone is insufficient; standardisation is crucial for measurements to be meaningful. Other civilizations produced generally accepted measurement standards, with Roman and Greek architecture based on distinct systems of measurement. Although local systems of measurement were common, comparability was difficult since many local systems were incompatible. Modern metrology has its roots in the French Revolution.
With a political motivation to harmonise units throughout France, a length standard based on a natural source was proposed. Metrology is defined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures BIPM as "the science of measurement, embracing both experimental and theoretical determinations at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology". Scientific metrology is concerned with the establishment of units of measurement, the development of new measurement methods, the realisation of measurement standards, and the transfer of traceability from these standards to users in a society.
These institutes, whose activities are peer-reviewed, provide the fundamental reference points for metrological traceability. In the area of measurement, BIPM has identified nine metrology areas, which are acoustics, electricity and magnetism, length, mass and related quantities, photometry and radiometry, ionizing radiation, time and frequency, thermometry, and chemistry.
As of May no physical objects define the base units. To redefine the value of a kilogram without an artefact the value of the Planck constant must be known to twenty parts per billion. Applied, technical or industrial metrology is concerned with the application of measurement to manufacturing and other processes and their use in society, ensuring the suitability of measurement instruments, their calibration and quality control. Recognition of the metrological competence in industry can be achieved through mutual recognition agreements, accreditation, or peer review.
Legal metrology "concerns activities which result from statutory requirements and concern measurement, units of measurement , measuring instruments and methods of measurement and which are performed by competent bodies". The International Organization for Legal Metrology OIML was established to assist in harmonising regulations across national boundaries to ensure that legal requirements do not inhibit trade.
The International System of Units SI defines seven base units: length, mass, time, electric current , thermodynamic temperature , amount of substance , and luminous intensity.
Since the base units are the reference points for all measurements taken in SI units, if the reference value changed all prior measurements would be incorrect. Before , if a piece of the international prototype of the kilogram had been snapped off, it would have still been defined as a kilogram; all previous measured values of a kilogram would be heavier.
By defining SI base units with respect to physical constants, and not on artifacts or specific substances, they are realisable with a higher level of precision and reproducibility. The new definitions aim to improve the SI without changing the size of any units, thus ensuring continuity with existing measurements.
The realisation of a unit of measure is its conversion into reality. A standard or etalon is an object, system, or experiment with a defined relationship to a unit of measurement of a physical quantity.
Secondary standards are calibrated with reference to a primary standard. Working standards, used to calibrate or check measuring instruments or other material measures, are calibrated with respect to secondary standards.
The hierarchy preserves the quality of the higher standards. A gauge block is a block of metal or ceramic with two opposing faces ground precisely flat and parallel, a precise distance apart.
Metrological traceability is defined as the "property of a measurement result whereby the result can be related to a reference through a documented unbroken chain of calibrations, each contributing to the measurement uncertainty". Traceability is most often obtained by calibration , establishing the relationship between an indication on a measuring instrument or secondary standard and the value of the standard.
A calibration is an operation that establishes a relation between a measurement standard with a known measurement uncertainty and the device that is being evaluated. The process will determine the measurement value and uncertainty of the device that is being calibrated and create a traceability link to the measurement standard.
Measurement uncertainty is a value associated with a measurement which expresses the spread of possible values associated with the measurand —a quantitative expression of the doubt existing in the measurement.
Uncertainty is generally expressed as follows: . Where y is the measurement value and U is the uncertainty value and k is the coverage factor [a] indicates the confidence interval. The upper and lower limit of the uncertainty interval can be determined by adding and subtracting the uncertainty value from the measurement value. The Metre Convention created three main international organizations to facilitate standardisation of weights and measures. The last meeting was held November 13—16, On the last day of this conference there was vote on the redefinition of four base units, which the International Committee for Weights and Measures CIPM had proposed earlier that year.
It is responsible for ten consultative committees CCs , each of which investigates a different aspect of metrology; one CC discusses the measurement of temperature, another the measurement of mass, and so forth. Each member of the CIPM is from a different member state, with France in recognition of its role in establishing the convention always having one seat.
Although the OIML has no legal authority to impose its recommendations and guidelines on its member countries, it provides a standardised legal framework for those countries to assist the development of appropriate, harmonised legislation for certification and calibration.
The International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation ILAC is an international organisation for accreditation agencies involved in the certification of conformity-assessment bodies. A national measurement system NMS is a network of laboratories, calibration facilities and accreditation bodies which implement and maintain a country's measurement infrastructure. A national metrology institute's NMI role in a country's measurement system is to conduct scientific metrology, realise base units, and maintain primary national standards.
Calibration laboratories are generally responsible for calibrations of industrial instrumentation. Since the calibration laboratories are accredited, they give companies a traceability link to national metrology standards. An organisation is accredited when an authoritative body determines, by assessing the organisation's personnel and management systems, that it is competent to provide its services.
Metrology has wide-ranging impacts on a number of sectors, including economics, energy, the environment, health, manufacturing, industry, and consumer confidence. To facilitate fair and accurate trade between countries, there must be an agreed-upon system of measurement.
Several studies have indicated that increased standardisation in measurement has a positive impact on GDP. In the United Kingdom, an estimated Legal metrology has reduced accidental deaths and injuries with measuring devices, such as radar guns and breathalyzers , by improving their efficiency and reliability. By providing a technical platform which new ideas can be built upon, easily demonstrated, and shared, measurement standards allow new ideas to be explored and expanded upon.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Science of measurement and its application. This article is about the science of measurement. For the study of weather, see Meteorology. See also: History of measurement. Archived from the original on Retrieved Placko, Dominique ed. Archived PDF from the original on National Physical Laboratory. Archived PDF from the original on 29 March Retrieved 16 February La metrologie francaise. Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 28 February Bureau International des Poids et Mesures.
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These books are used by students of top universities, institutes and colleges. With a conventional introduction to the principles and standards of measurement, the book in subsequent chapters takes the reader through the important topics of metrology such as limits, fits and tolerances, linear measurements, angular measurements, comparators, optical measurements. The last few chapters discuss the measurement concepts of simple physical parameters such as force, torque, strain, temperature, and pressure, before introducing the contemporary information on nanometrology as the last chapter. Adopting an illustrative approach to explain the concepts, the book presents solved numerical problems, practice problems, review questions, and multiple choice questions. The reason is the electronic devices divert your attention and also cause strains while reading eBooks. List of Books.
Michael H. Ramsey, Stephen L.R. Ellison, Horst Czichos, Werner Hässelbarth, Hanspeter Ischi, Wolfhard Wegscheider et al. Pages PDF.
Saito, Tetsuya Hrsg. Smith, Leslie E. Springer-Verlag GmbH erschienen am This Springer Handbook of Metrology and Testing presents the principles of Metrology - the science of measurement - and the methods and techniques of Testing - determining the characteristics of a given product - as they apply to chemical and microstructural analysis, and to the measurement and testing of materials properties and performance, including modelling and simulation. The principal motivation for this Handbook stems from the increasing demands of technology for measurement results that can be used globally.
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