File Name: philosophical and sociological perspectives of education in hindi .zip
The sociology of education is the study of how public institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcomes. It is mostly concerned with the public schooling systems of modern industrial societies, including the expansion of higher , further , adult , and continuing education. Education is seen as a fundamentally optimistic human endeavour characterised by aspirations for progress and betterment. Social interactions between people through education is always causing further development no matter what age they are.
Functionalists believe that education equips people to perform different functional roles in society. Conflict theorists view education as a means of widening the gap in social inequality. Feminist theorists point to evidence that sexism in education continues to prevent women from achieving a full measure of social equality. Symbolic interactionists study the dynamics of the classroom, the interactions between students and teachers, and how those affect everyday life.
In this section, you will learn about each of these perspectives. Functionalists view education as one of the more important social institutions in a society. They contend that education contributes two kinds of functions: manifest or primary functions, which are the intended and visible functions of education; and latent or secondary functions, which are the hidden and unintended functions. There are several major manifest functions associated with education.
The first is socialization. Beginning in preschool and kindergarten, students are taught to practice various societal roles. Indeed, it seems that schools have taken on this responsibility in full. This socialization also involves learning the rules and norms of the society as a whole. In the early days of compulsory education, students learned the dominant culture. Today, since the culture of the United States is increasingly diverse, students may learn a variety of cultural norms, not only that of the dominant culture.
School systems in the United States also transmit the core values of the nation through manifest functions like social control. One of the roles of schools is to teach students conformity to law and respect for authority. Obviously, such respect, given to teachers and administrators, will help a student navigate the school environment. This function also prepares students to enter the workplace and the world at large, where they will continue to be subject to people who have authority over them.
Fulfillment of this function rests primarily with classroom teachers and instructors who are with students all day. Education also provides one of the major methods used by people for upward social mobility. This function is referred to as social placement. College and graduate schools are viewed as vehicles for moving students closer to the careers that will give them the financial freedom and security they seek. As a result, college students are often more motivated to study areas that they believe will be advantageous on the social ladder.
A student might value business courses over a class in Victorian poetry because she sees business class as a stronger vehicle for financial success. Education also fulfills latent functions. As you well know, much goes on in a school that has little to do with formal education. For example, you might notice an attractive fellow student when he gives a particularly interesting answer in class—catching up with him and making a date speaks to the latent function of courtship fulfilled by exposure to a peer group in the educational setting.
The educational setting introduces students to social networks that might last for years and can help people find jobs after their schooling is complete. Of course, with social media such as Facebook and LinkedIn, these networks are easier than ever to maintain. Another latent function is the ability to work with others in small groups, a skill that is transferable to a workplace and that might not be learned in a homeschool setting.
The educational system, especially as experienced on university campuses, has traditionally provided a place for students to learn about various social issues. There is ample opportunity for social and political advocacy, as well as the ability to develop tolerance to the many views represented on campus.
In , the Occupy Wall Street movement swept across college campuses all over the United States, leading to demonstrations in which diverse groups of students were unified with the purpose of changing the political climate of the country. Functionalists recognize other ways that schools educate and enculturate students. One of the most important U. One of the roles of schools in the United States is fostering self-esteem; conversely, schools in Japan focus on fostering social esteem—the honoring of the group over the individual.
In the United States, schools also fill the role of preparing students for competition in life. Obviously, athletics foster a competitive nature, but even in the classroom students compete against one another academically. Schools also fill the role of teaching patriotism. Starting each day with the Pledge of Allegiance is one way in which students are taught patriotism. Another role of schools, according to functionalist theory, is that of sorting , or classifying students based on academic merit or potential.
The most capable students are identified early in schools through testing and classroom achievements. Such students are placed in accelerated programs in anticipation of successful college attendance. Functionalists also contend that school, particularly in recent years, is taking over some of the functions that were traditionally undertaken by family. Society relies on schools to teach about human sexuality as well as basic skills such as budgeting and job applications—topics that at one time were addressed by the family.
Conflict theorists do not believe that public schools reduce social inequality. Rather, they believe that the educational system reinforces and perpetuates social inequalities that arise from differences in class, gender, race, and ethnicity. Where functionalists see education as serving a beneficial role, conflict theorists view it more negatively.
To them, educational systems preserve the status quo and push people of lower status into obedience. Conflict theorists see the education system as a means by which those in power stay in power. Students of low socioeconomic status are generally not afforded the same opportunities as students of higher status, no matter how great their academic ability or desire to learn. Picture a student from a working-class home who wants to do well in school.
Monday evening, he has to babysit his younger sister while his divorced mother works. Tuesday and Wednesday, he works stocking shelves after school until p. And since English is her second language, she has difficulty with some of his educational materials. They also lack a computer and printer at home, which most of his classmates have, so they have to rely on the public library or school system for access to technology. As this story shows, many students from working-class families have to contend with helping out at home, contributing financially to the family, poor study environments and a lack of support from their families.
This is a difficult match with education systems that adhere to a traditional curriculum that is more easily understood and completed by students of higher social classes.
Such a situation leads to social class reproduction, extensively studied by French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. He researched how cultural capital , or cultural knowledge that serves metaphorically as currency that helps us navigate a culture, alters the experiences and opportunities available to French students from different social classes. Members of the upper and middle classes have more cultural capital than do families of lower-class status. Instruction and tests cater to the dominant culture and leave others struggling to identify with values and competencies outside their social class.
For example, there has been a great deal of discussion over what standardized tests such as the SAT truly measure. Many argue that the tests group students by cultural ability rather than by natural intelligence.
The cycle of rewarding those who possess cultural capital is found in formal educational curricula as well as in the hidden curriculum , which refers to the type of nonacademic knowledge that students learn through informal learning and cultural transmission.
This hidden curriculum reinforces the positions of those with higher cultural capital and serves to bestow status unequally. While educators may believe that students do better in tracked classes because they are with students of similar ability and may have access to more individual attention from teachers, conflict theorists feel that tracking leads to self-fulfilling prophecies in which students live up or down to teacher and societal expectations Education Week To conflict theorists, schools play the role of training working-class students to accept and retain their position as lower members of society.
They argue that this role is fulfilled through the disparity of resources available to students in richer and poorer neighborhoods as well as through testing Lauen and Tyson IQ tests have been attacked for being biased—for testing cultural knowledge rather than actual intelligence. For example, a test item may ask students what instruments belong in an orchestra. To correctly answer this question requires certain cultural knowledge—knowledge most often held by more affluent people who typically have more exposure to orchestral music.
Though experts in testing claim that bias has been eliminated from tests, conflict theorists maintain that this is impossible. These tests, to conflict theorists, are another way in which education does not provide opportunities, but instead maintains an established configuration of power. Feminist theory aims to understand the mechanisms and roots of gender inequality in education, as well as their societal repercussions. Like many other institutions of society, educational systems are characterized by unequal treatment and opportunity for women.
Women in the United States have been relatively late, historically speaking, to be granted entry to the public university system. In the United States, there is also a post-education gender disparity between what male and female college graduates earn.
Similar trends are seen among salaries of professionals in virtually all industries. When women face limited opportunities for education, their capacity to achieve equal rights, including financial independence, are limited. Consider a large-city newspaper publisher. More and more, they find themselves in the position of educating new hires in abilities that, in the past, had been mastered during their education. This story illustrates a growing concern referred to as grade inflation —a term used to describe the observation that the correspondence between letter grades and the achievements they reflect has been changing in a downward direction over time.
Put simply, what used to be considered C-level, or average, now often earns a student a B, or even an A. Why is this happening? Research on this emerging issue is ongoing, so no one is quite sure yet.
Some cite the alleged shift toward a culture that rewards effort instead of product, i. The fact that these reviews are commonly posted online exacerbates this pressure. In any case, the issue is hotly debated, with many being called upon to conduct research to help us better understand and respond to this trend National Public Radio ; Mansfield Symbolic interactionism sees education as one way that labeling theory is seen in action.
A symbolic interactionist might say that this labeling has a direct correlation to those who are in power and those who are labeled.
For example, low standardized test scores or poor performance in a particular class often lead to a student who is labeled as a low achiever. In his book High School Confidential , Jeremy Iverson details his experience as a Stanford graduate posing as a student at a California high school. One of the problems he identifies in his research is that of teachers applying labels that students are never able to lose.
One teacher told him, without knowing he was a bright graduate of a top university, that he would never amount to anything Iverson The labeling with which symbolic interactionists concern themselves extends to the very degrees that symbolize completion of education. Credentialism embodies the emphasis on certificates or degrees to show that a person has a certain skill, has attained a certain level of education, or has met certain job qualifications.
These certificates or degrees serve as a symbol of what a person has achieved, and allows the labeling of that individual. This is easily seen in the educational setting, as teachers and more powerful social groups within the school dole out labels that are adopted by the entire school population.
Table Perhaps the most important function of education is socialization. If children need to learn the norms, values, and skills they need to function in society, then education is a primary vehicle for such learning. In the United States, these norms and values include respect for authority, patriotism remember the Pledge of Allegiance? Regarding these last two values, American students from an early age compete as individuals over grades and other rewards.
Philosophy of education , philosophical reflection on the nature, aims, and problems of education. The philosophy of education is Janus -faced, looking both inward to the parent discipline of philosophy and outward to educational practice. This dual focus requires it to work on both sides of the traditional divide between theory and practice, taking as its subject matter both basic philosophical issues e. These practical issues in turn have implications for a variety of long-standing philosophical problems in epistemology , metaphysics , ethics , and political philosophy. In addressing these many issues and problems, the philosopher of education strives for conceptual clarity, argumentative rigour, and informed valuation. The history of philosophy of education is an important source of concerns and issues—as is the history of education itself—for setting the intellectual agenda of contemporary philosophers of education.
After reading this chapter, you will be able to. This chapter introduces several theories concerning the sociology of education. Because this text explores education from a sociological perspective, it is essential that we consider how theory contributes to our understanding of education as a part of society. It is like seeing the world through a specific set of glasses see Figure 2. The way we see the world clearly influences how we interpret the social processes that are occurring within it.
Philosophical And Sociological Perspectives Of Education (Hindi) Paperback – 1 January by Poonam Madan (Author), Ramshakal pandey (Author).
National Council for Teacher Education is a statutory body which regulates courses in teaching in India. The B.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This book demonstrates the value of approaching education from a sociological and philosophical perspective.
В комнате творилось нечто невообразимое. Техники обнимали друг друга, подбрасывая вверх длинные полосы распечаток. Бринкерхофф обнимал Мидж. Соши заливалась слезами. - Джабба, - спросил Фонтейн, - много они похитили.
Чтобы развеять эти опасения, конгресс объявил, что, когда алгоритм будет создан, его передадут для ознакомления лучшим математикам мира, которые должны будут оценить его качество. Команда криптографов АНБ под руководством Стратмора без особого энтузиазма создала алгоритм, который окрестила Попрыгунчиком, и представила его в конгресс для одобрения. Зарубежные ученые-математики проверили Попрыгунчика и единодушно подтвердили его высокое качество.
Она помнила его тело, прижавшееся к ее телу, его нежные поцелуи. Неужели все это был сон.
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *