File Name: job stress and health .zip
Occupational stress is psychological stress related to one's job.
Stress can have serious health implications, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease and exacerbating medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and hypertension. Stress is unavoidable, but learning to manage it effectively is critical. Stress is a fact of life and can affect individuals in a variety of ways.
At some point in life, every individual experiences some degree of stress; some individuals experience stress more often than others and some have difficulty dealing with stress. Stress can be manifested from any situation or thought that causes an individual to experience frustration, anger, and nervousness, whereas anxiety is a feeling of fear and apprehension.
There are times when stress, in limited amounts, can be beneficial and encourages an individual to meet a deadline or get a task done.
Studies have shown, however, that individuals who experience excessive amounts of stress may exacerbate or increase the risk of developing various medical conditions.
Examples of physical symptoms related to stress include fatigue, headache, gastrointestinal GI upset, muscle tension, episodes of dizziness, weight loss or gain, back pain, and teeth grinding. In addition, many individuals experience problems sleeping. According to the American Psychological Association APA , stress can be categorized as acute, episodic acute, and chronic. Acute stress is the most common form of stress and is short term.
It is described as a reaction to an immediate threat, commonly referred to as the fight or flight response. Episodic acute stress is prevalent among those individuals whose lives are constantly chaotic and demanding. Chronic stress is defined as a type of stress that occurs over a long period of time from either internal or external stressors. Stress has been linked to or can exacerbate various medical conditions, such as asthma, fatigue, back pain, arrhythmias, difficulty breathing, headaches, hypertension, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcers, suppression of the immune system, and fluctuations in blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.
This can disrupt normal levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which is critical for feelings of well-being. Various studies also report that stress can also cause hives and atopic dermatitis. There is scientific evidence indicating that individuals experiencing psychological stress are more prone to developing colds and other infections than their less-stressed peers. While more research needs to be conducted, the American Heart Association reports that various studies suggests that there is a link between the risk of cardiovascular disease and environmental and psychosocial factors.
Numerous studies show job stress is considered to be the greatest source of stress among adults in the United States and that levels of stress have increased significantly over the past few decades.
In a report published in the November 24, , online edition of the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, a study concluded that men who consistently failed to deal with work-related stress issues were twice as likely to have a myocardial infarction or die of cardiovascular disease than those who managed stress in a constructive way. In general, workplace factors that may contribute to or exacerbate levels of stress include 2 :. During counseling, pharmacists should take the opportunity to remind patients about the effects of stress on overall health.
For example, according to the American Diabetes Association, stress can affect patients with diabetes in 2 ways 13 :. The management of stress should be individualized and based on the severity, type, and frequency of stress. Cognitive behavioral therapy is considered to be one of the most effective means of reducing stress.
Patients experiencing chronic stress or displaying symptoms related to anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, should always be referred to their primary health care provider for further assessment and treatment. Since stress can cause sleep disturbances, some patients may elect to use the various OTC sleep aids on the market or may want to discuss the use of the various prescription sleep aids. Some patients may elect to use OTC analgesics for stress-related headaches.
Patients should be advised to use these products as directed and to contact their primary health care provider if symptoms persist or worsen. In addition, some patients may elect to use alternative or homeopathic products marketed for mild episodes of stress and tension relief. Patients with medical conditions and those taking any other medications should be advised to consult their primary health care provider before using any of these products to avoid possible drug interactions or contraindications.
While sometimes it is easier said than done, it is important for individuals to learn how to effectively manage stress in healthy ways. Individuals with chronic stress should be encouraged to seek help, which may include counseling, finding ways to relax, and discuss the possibility of medications with their physician.
In addition, since the health care field can be demanding, health care professionals should find constructive means to manage stress and take care of themselves, so that they can provide quality care to their patients.
As health care professionals, it is our inherent duty to be concerned about the health of our patients and provide them with the necessary information to take active roles in their health. Pharmacists can reassure patients that they are not alone in dealing with stress and provide them with valuable resources on effectively controlling stress, instead of letting stress take control.
Stress and anxiety. Medline Plus website. Accessed February 4, Stress a major health problem in the U. American Psychological Association website. Accessed February 3, American Academy of Family Physicians website. Stress: The different kinds of stress. Accessed February 11, Stress Patient Education. MD Consult website.
Accessed February 5, Exposure to stress: occupational hazards in the hospitals. Stress management: Understand your sources of stress. Mayo Clinic website. Chronic stress and the heart. Effects of stress. The American Institute of Stress website.
Stress and heart disease. American Heart Association website. Accessed February 3, Job stress. American Diabetes Association website. National Institute of Mental Health website. Stress tip sheet. Managing stress for people with heart failure. Yvette C. Terrie is a clinical pharmacy writer based in Haymarket, Virginia. References 1. Help Patients Treat Headaches Safely.
Back to Cognitive behavioural therapy CBT. CBT has been shown to be an effective way of treating a number of different mental health conditions. Although CBT cannot cure the physical symptoms of these conditions, it can help people cope better with their symptoms. If CBT is recommended, you'll usually have a session with a therapist once a week or once every 2 weeks. During the sessions, you'll work with your therapist to break down your problems into their separate parts, such as your thoughts, physical feelings and actions. You and your therapist will analyse these areas to work out if they're unrealistic or unhelpful, and to determine the effect they have on each other and on you.
Metrics details. While there is considerable theoretical and empirical evidence on how job stress affects physical and mental health, few studies have examined the association between job related stress and health care utilization. Using data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey from to , this paper examines the association between stressful working conditions, as measured by the job strain model, and the utilization of health care services. A zero inflated negative binomial regression is used to examine the excess health care utilization due to job strain. Separate regressions are estimated for both males and females since studies have shown gender differences in health care utilization. Estimates for the whole population show that high or medium job strain has a positive and statistically significant association with the number of visits to both a general practitioner GP and a specialist SP.
Factor analysis of the job stressors questionnaires revealed that six factors, namely, job significance, workload, work politics, interpersonal dealings at work, work conditions, and university reorganization, were the major stressors for the staff. In general, younger staff members reported more job stress than older staff. Staff belonging to the Faculty of Education, Nursing and Professional Studies at the Armidale campus and general staff at the Armidale campus reported more job stress than other staff. There was some indication that staff employed at the higher job levels were less stressed than those employed at the lower job levels and support staff. Dua, J. Report bugs here. Please share your general feedback.
PDF | This review of the literature gives information about work stress, factors in the working environment that cause stressful situations and.
The nature of work is changing at whirlwind speed. Perhaps now more than ever before, job stress poses a threat to the health of workers and, in turn, to the health organizations. Through its research program in job stress and through educational materials such as this booklet, NIOSH is committed to providing organizations with knowledge to reduce this threat. This publication highlights knowledge about the causes of stress at work and outlines steps that can be taken to prevent job stress.
Metrics details. Work-related stress and its detrimental effects on human health have rapidly increased during the past several years. It causes many different stress reactions, related diseases and unhealthy behavior among workers, but especially women workers.
This page has been produced in consultation with and approved by: use. Services include parent education to maternal and child healthcare, child care, crisis support, child protection, family violence and relationship services. When returning to a flood-affected area, remember that wild animals, including rats, mice, snakes or spiders, may be trapped in your home, shed or garden. When returning to your home after a flood, take precautions to reduce the possibility of injury, illness or disease.
Numerous studies show that job stress is far and away the major source of stress for American adults and that it has escalated progressively over the past few decades. Increased levels of job stress as assessed by the perception of having little control but lots of demands have been demonstrated to be associated with increased rates of heart attack, hypertension, and other disorders. In New York, Los Angels and other municipalities, the relationship between job stress and heart attacks is so well acknowledged, that any police officer who suffers a coronary event on or off the job is assumed to have a work-related injury and is compensated accordingly including heart attack sustained while fishing on vacation or gambling in Las Vegas. It is not the job but the person-environment fit that matters. Some individuals thrive in the time urgent pressure cooker of life in the fast lane, having to perform several duties at the same time and a list of things to do that would overwhelm most of us — provided they perceive that they are in control. They would be severely stressed by dull, dead-end assembly line work enjoyed by others who shun responsibility and simply want to perform a task that is well within their capabilities. The stresses that a policeman or high school teacher working in an inner city environment are subjected to are quite different than those experienced by their counterparts in rural Iowa.
PDF | Research examining the relationship between work stress and well-being has flourished over the past 20 years. At the same time, research on | Find.
Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *