File Name: biotic stress and yield loss .zip
The coupling of biotic and abiotic stresses leads to high yield losses in rainfed rice Oryza sativa L. While several studies target these stresses independently, breeding strategies to combat multiple stresses seldom exist. This study reports an integrated strategy that combines QTL mapping and phenotypic selection to develop rice lines with high grain yield GY under drought stress and non-stress conditions, and tolerance of rice blast.
Responses of different lentil populations to biotic stress Fusarium wilt disease. Biotic stress wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium is the most devastating soil born stress in lentil Lens culinaris Medik and breeding for host resistance is the best method to control wilt. Three distinct sets comprising of eight variable populations segregating generations, their parents and standard varieties of lentil Lens culinaris Medik were evaluated to observe their responses against Fusarium wilt of lentil in a nested design. The results revealed that the parents, standard varieties and plant progenies in segregating populations were developed through selection of single plants and showed resistance against Fusarium wilt disease. Among all sets, the populations of Set-2 and Set-3 were a good source of variation for resistance against Fusarium wilt disease, which may be evaluated and utilized for the selection of disease resistant plants. The mutated populations A M , B M and AB M showed more resistance in comparison with recombinant populations thus implying that using induced mutation is effective for developing resistance in lentil. Such type of resistant breeding material can minimize the impact of this disease on lentil production and would be an aid to the lentil breeders in developing high yielding and disease resistant varieties.
The natural conditions in which plants and trees grow are neither uniform nor controlled. Many changes or fluctuations, even if they are temporary, can have a negative impact on and stress plants. The factors which can lead to stress can be one of two types: abiotic or biotic. While a few stress factors can be measured in advance and prevented, most have to be dealt with after their occurrence. Thus, it is important to be able to recognize their effects.
Rapid global warming directly impacts agricultural productivity and poses a major challenge to the present-day agriculture. Although wheat occupies the largest total harvested area The major production losses in wheat are caused more by abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and high temperature than by biotic insults. Thus, understanding the effects of these stresses becomes indispensable for wheat improvement programs which have depended mainly on the genetic variations present in the wheat genome through conventional breeding. Notably, recent biotechnological breakthroughs in the understanding of gene functions and access to whole genome sequences have opened new avenues for crop improvement.
and yield loss. Although one type of biotic stress—arthropod injury—may be better understood than the others, plant responses to biotic stresses continue to be.
Biotic stress is stress that occurs as a result of damage done to an organism by other living organisms, such as bacteria , viruses , fungi , parasites , beneficial and harmful insects, weeds , and cultivated or native plants. Biotic stress remains a broadly defined term and those who study it face many challenges, such as the greater difficulty in controlling biotic stresses in an experimental context compared to abiotic stress. The damage caused by these various living and nonliving agents can appear very similar. Biotic stressors are a major focus of agricultural research, due to the vast economic losses caused to cash crops. The relationship between biotic stress and plant yield affects economic decisions as well as practical development. The impact of biotic injury on crop yield impacts population dynamics , plant-stressor coevolution , and ecosystem nutrient cycling. Biotic stress also impacts horticultural plant health and natural habitats ecology.
Global warming leads to the concurrence of a number of abiotic and biotic stresses, thus affecting agricultural productivity. Occurrence of abiotic stresses can alter plant—pest interactions by enhancing host plant susceptibility to pathogenic organisms, insects, and by reducing competitive ability with weeds. On the contrary, some pests may alter plant response to abiotic stress factors. Therefore, systematic studies are pivotal to understand the effect of concurrent abiotic and biotic stress conditions on crop productivity. However, to date, a collective database on the occurrence of various stress combinations in agriculturally prominent areas is not available. This review attempts to assemble published information on this topic, with a particular focus on the impact of combined drought and pathogen stresses on crop productivity.
Plants are subjected to a wide range of environmental stresses which reduces and limits the productivity of agricultural crops. Two types of environmental stresses are encountered to plants which can be categorized as 1 Abiotic stress and 2 Biotic stress. The abiotic stress causes the loss of major crop plants worldwide and includes radiation, salinity, floods, drought, extremes in temperature, heavy metals, etc. On the other hand, attacks by various pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, oomycetes, nematodes and herbivores are included in biotic stresses. As plants are sessile in nature, they have no choice to escape from these environmental cues.
A good understanding of dynamics involved in food production is critical for the improvement of food security. It has been demonstrated that an increase in crop yields significantly reduces poverty. Yield, the mass of harvest crop product in a specific area, is influenced by several factors. These factors are grouped in three basic categories known as technological agricultural practices, managerial decision, etc. These factors account for yield differences from one region to another worldwide. The current chapter will discuss each of these three basic factors as well as providing some recommendations for overcoming them.
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Туннельный блок наполовину уничтожен! - крикнул техник. На ВР туча из черных нитей все глубже вгрызалась в оставшиеся щиты. Дэвид сидел в мини-автобусе, тихо наблюдая за драмой, разыгрывавшейся перед ним на мониторе. - Сьюзан! - позвал. - Меня осенило.
В центре лба зияло пулевое отверстие, из которого сочилась кровь, заливая лицо. - О Боже! - воскликнул он в ужасе. - Esta muerta, - прокаркал за его спиной голос, который трудно было назвать человеческим. - Она мертва. Беккер обернулся как во сне.
Назови мне самое большое время, которое ТРАНСТЕКСТ затрачивал на взламывание кода.
Беккер с трудом вел мотоцикл по крутым изломам улочки. Урчащий мотор шумным эхо отражался от стен, и он понимал, что это с головой выдает его в предутренней тишине квартала Санта-Крус. В данный момент у него только одно преимущество - скорость. Я должен поскорее выбраться отсюда.
Что случилось, Сью. У тебя ужасный вид. Сьюзан подавила поднимающуюся волну страха. В нескольких метрах от нее ярко светился экран Хейла. - Со мной… все в порядке, - выдавила .
Срочно. Она попыталась собраться с мыслями.
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