File Name: discipline and punish summary .zip
It is an analysis of the social and theoretical mechanisms behind the changes that occurred in Western penal systems during the modern age based on historical documents from France. Foucault argues that prison did not become the principal form of punishment just because of the humanitarian concerns of reformists. He traces the cultural shifts that led to the predominance of prison via the body and power. Prison used by the "disciplines" — new technological powers that can also be found, according to Foucault, in places such as schools, hospitals, and military barracks. In a later work, Security, Territory, Population , Foucault admitted that he was somewhat overzealous in his argument that disciplinary power conditions society; he amended and developed his earlier ideas. The main ideas of Discipline and Punish can be grouped according to its four parts: torture , punishment, discipline, and prison.
Discipline and Punish is first of all a history of changing attitudes toward and practices of punishing crime in the late s through mid s. Foucault focuses on Western societies, especially France and England. The major transition Foucault describes, laid out in Parts One and Two of Discipline and Punish , is from punishment as a public spectacle to a private detention. Up until the late s, punishment for crimes was usually doled out by the sovereign of a country, such as a king, and came in the form of public torture or execution. In prison, the criminal is taken away from social view rather than publicly displayed. The transition from torture to prisons then entails a number of other transitions. First, there is a transition from a focus on the body to a focus on the soul: reforming the soul instead of punishing the body.
Discipline & Punish Summary and Review · Discipline & Punish Key Idea #1: In the nineteenth century, public punishment of the body gave way to private.
Pick up the key ideas in the book with this quick summary. It might not seem obvious at first glance why prisons are so important. After all, they are an integral and accepted part of our legal system.
The following version of this book was used to create this study guide: Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. Translated by Alan Sheridan. Vintage Books,
Discipline and Punish is a history of the modern penal system. Foucault seeks to analyze punishment in its social context, and to examine how changing power relations affected punishment. He begins by analyzing the situation before the eighteenth century, when public execution and corporal punishment were key punishments, and torture was part of most criminal investigations. Punishment was ceremonial and directed at the prisoner's body. It was a ritual in which the audience was important.
The reforming jurists, on the other hand, saw punishment as a procedure for requalifying individuals as subjects, as juridical subjects; it uses not marks, but signs, coded sets of representations, which would be given the most rapid circulation and the most general acceptance possible by citizens witnessing the scene of punishment. They are modalities according to which the power to punish is exercised: three technologies of power. Discipline sometimes requires enclosure , the specification of a place heterogeneous to all others and closed in upon itself. It is the protected place of disciplinary monotony. This machinery works space in a much more flexible and detailed way. It does this first of all on the principle of elementary location or partitioning. Each individual has his own place; and each place its individual.
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Start growing! Boost your life and career with the best book summaries. Have you ever wondered why public tortures and executions evolved into prisons and penitentiaries? Steven Pinker would say because of the better angels of our nature. Michel Foucault was a French philosopher, historian of ideas and social theorist, extremely influential in areas as diverse as communication and cultural studies, feminism and literary theory. Born in an upper-class family in France, Foucault earned degrees in philosophy and psychology at the Sorbonne University of Paris. If not, he was a domestic servant who tried to kill King Louis XIV back in , unsurprisingly, the year he died.
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