File Name: causes effects and control measures of noise pollution .zip
Most of us are accustomed to the sounds we hear every day.
As the world becomes more urbanized, the use of machine-technology increases, and levels of development become higher and more complex, human exposure to noise increases. One authority estimates that the average noise level in the American city is increasing by 1 dB annually. Despite the importance and great scale of the problem, geographers generally have ignored the field of noise pollution research, perhaps because specialized equipment is necessary to accumulate the data required for analysis.
As a result, most noise pollution research has been performed by traffic engineers, industrial designers and urban planners to solve immediate problems with little regard for more general consideration.
This article provides background which may serve as a foundation for future research on this most significant human problem. The emphasis is upon developments in North America, but reference is made at appropriate points, to noise pollution research in Europe, China and elsewhere.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Reprints and Permissions. Harnapp, V. Noise pollution. GeoJournal 14, — Download citation. Issue Date : March Search SpringerLink Search. Immediate online access to all issues from Subscription will auto renew annually. Author information Affiliations Prof. Noble Authors Vern R. Harnapp View author publications. View author publications.
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Background: Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. Objectives: We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Conclusion: Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda.
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