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Microbiology has had a long, rich history, initially centered in the causes of infectious diseases but now including practical applications of the science. Many individuals have made significant contributions to the development of microbiology. Early history of microbiology. He is reputed to have observed strands of fungi among the specimens of cells he viewed. In the s and the decades thereafter, a Dutch merchant named Anton van Leeuwenhoek made careful observations of microscopic organisms, which he called animalcules.
Until his death in , van Leeuwenhoek revealed the microscopic world to scientists of the day and is regarded as one of the first to provide accurate descriptions of protozoa, fungi, and bacteria.
After van Leeuwenhoek died, the study of microbiology did not develop rapidly because microscopes were rare and the interest in microorganisms was not high.
In those years, scientists debated the theory of spontaneous generation , which stated that microorganisms arise from lifeless matter such as beef broth. This theory was disputed by Francesco Redi , who showed that fly maggots do not arise from decaying meat as others believed if the meat is covered to prevent the entry of flies. An English cleric named John Needham advanced spontaneous generation, but Lazzaro Spallanzani disputed the theory by showing that boiled broth would not give rise to microscopic forms of life.
Louis Pasteur and the germ theory. Louis Pasteur worked in the middle and late s. He performed numerous experiments to discover why wine and dairy products became sour, and he found that bacteria were to blame. He left the flasks of broth open to the air, but the flasks had a curve in the neck so that microorganisms would fall into the neck, not the broth.
The flasks did not become contaminated as he predicted they would not , and Pasteur's experiments put to rest the notion of spontaneous generation. His work also encouraged the belief that microorganisms were in the air and could cause disease. Pasteur postulated the germ theory of disease , which states that microorganisms are the causes of infectious disease.
Pasteur's attempts to prove the germ theory were unsuccessful. However, the German scientist Robert Koch provided the proof by cultivating anthrax bacteria apart from any other type of organism.
He then injected pure cultures of the bacilli into mice and showed that the bacilli invariably caused anthrax. The procedures used by Koch came to be known as Koch's postulates Figure. They provided a set of principles whereby other microorganisms could be related to other diseases. The development of microbiology. In the late s and for the first decade of the s, scientists seized the opportunity to further develop the germ theory of disease as enunciated by Pasteur and proved by Koch.
There emerged a Golden Age of Microbiology during which many agents of different infectious diseases were identified. Many of the etiologic agents of microbial disease were discovered during that period, leading to the ability to halt epidemics by interrupting the spread of microorganisms. Then, after World War II, the antibiotics were introduced to medicine. The incidence of pneumonia, tuberculosis, meningitis, syphilis, and many other diseases declined with the use of antibiotics.
Work with viruses could not be effectively performed until instruments were developed to help scientists see these disease agents. In the s, the electron microscope was developed and perfected. In that decade, cultivation methods for viruses were also introduced, and the knowledge of viruses developed rapidly. With the development of vaccines in the s and s, such viral diseases as polio, measles, mumps, and rubella came under control.
Modern microbiology. Microorganisms are used to produce vitamins, amino acids, enzymes, and growth supplements. They manufacture many foods, including fermented dairy products sour cream, yogurt, and buttermilk , as well as other fermented foods such as pickles, sauerkraut, breads, and alcoholic beverages.
One of the major areas of applied microbiology is biotechnology. In this discipline, microorganisms are used as living factories to produce pharmaceuticals that otherwise could not be manufactured. Bacteria can be reengineered to increase plant resistance to insects and frost, and biotechnology will represent a major application of microorganisms in the next century. The steps of Koch's postulates used to relate a specific microorganism to a specific disease.
Despite the advances in microbiology, it was rarely possible to render life-saving therapy to an infected patient.
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Eukaryotic microorganisms possess membrane-bound organelles and include fungi and protists , whereas prokaryotic organisms—all of which are microorganisms—are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include Bacteria and Archaea. Viruses have been variably classified as organisms,  as they have been considered either as very simple microorganisms or very complex molecules. Prions , never considered as microorganisms, have been investigated by virologists, however, as the clinical effects traced to them were originally presumed due to chronic viral infections, and virologists took search—discovering "infectious proteins". The existence of microorganisms was predicted many centuries before they were first observed, for example by the Jains in India and by Marcus Terentius Varro in ancient Rome. The first recorded microscope observation was of the fruiting bodies of moulds, by Robert Hooke in , but the Jesuit priest Athanasius Kircher was likely the first to see microbes, which he mentioned observing in milk and putrid material in Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is considered a father of microbiology as he observed and experimented with microscopic organisms in the s, using simple microscopes of his own design.
Microbiology has had a long, rich history, initially centered in the causes of infectious diseases but now including practical applications of the science. Many individuals have made significant contributions to the development of microbiology. Early history of microbiology. He is reputed to have observed strands of fungi among the specimens of cells he viewed. In the s and the decades thereafter, a Dutch merchant named Anton van Leeuwenhoek made careful observations of microscopic organisms, which he called animalcules. Until his death in , van Leeuwenhoek revealed the microscopic world to scientists of the day and is regarded as one of the first to provide accurate descriptions of protozoa, fungi, and bacteria.
Scope of industrial microbiology pdf Industrial Microbiology. Table 1. You can get the free Microbiology Textbook pdf from our site and then you can read it anywhere on your smartphones and laptops. This book introduces the field of microbiology and discusses the importance of microorganisms not only as causative agents of disease but also as important contributors to food production, antibiotic manufacture, vaccine development, and … Submitted manuscripts should present new results of original research or describe new theoretical or methodological approaches to microbiological problems. May
Беккер не мог оторвать глаз от ее руки. У него кружилась голова. Слова, которые он прочитал, были теми же, что произнес немец: ПРОВАЛИВАЙ И УМРИ.
Он пошел на звук и уткнулся в стеклянную дверь, за которой, судя по доносящемуся оттуда шуму и гвалту, происходило нечто вроде драки. Преодолев отвращение, Беккер открыл дверь. Регистратура. Бедлам. Так он и .
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