File Name: analysis and design of steel and composite structures .zip
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Engineering College, for their encouragement and help during the project work. We express our sincere thanks to M AY G.. JJA Mss.. Engineering College, for her valuable suggestions and guidance during the project work. We express our deep sense of gratitude to M Mrr.. CCCL , Chennai, for his valuable guidance and generous support throughout our project work. The overall plan dimension of the building is The analysis and design involves the structural planning, load calculation, analyzing it by 2D modeling using STAAD-Pro , design of composite floors and columns, design of steel beams and design of foundation.
Analysis has been done for various load combinations including seismic load, wind load, etc, as per the Indian Standard Code of Practice. The project also involves analysis and design of an equivalent R. C 6. Experiences of other countries indicate that this is not due to the lack of economy of Steel as a construction material.
There is a great potential for increasing the volume of Steel in construction, especially in the current development needs in India. Not exploring Steel as an alternative construction material and not using it where it is economical is a heavy loss for the country. Also, it is evident that now-a-days, the composite sections using Steel encased with Concrete are economic, cost and time effective solution in major civil structures such as bridges and high rise buildings.
In due consideration of the above fact, this project has been envisaged which consists of analysis and design of a high rise building using Steel-Concrete composites. C structure so that a cost comparison can be made between a Steel-Concrete composite structure and an equivalent R. A composite member is formed when a steel component ,such as an I beam ,is attached to a concrete component, such as a floor slab or bridge deck.
The fact that each material is used to the fullest advantage makes composite Steel-Concrete construction very efficient and economical. However, the real attraction of such construction is based on having an efficient connection of the Steel to the Concrete, and it is this connection that allows a transfer of forces and gives composite members their unique behavior. Thus, steel did not make much in-roads in building construction and highways, and its share in bridge construction also started decreasing.
Hence, proper development of steel application sectors has become an important issue and the steel framed composite construction is considered to be a cost effective solution for multi-storied buildings due to optimum use of materials.
Over the years, this specialized field of construction has become more and more popular in the western world and developed into a multifaceted design and construction technique. Apart from composite beam, slab and column, options like composite truss, slim-floor etc are also being explored in the field of composite construction.
Under load, these two components act independently and a relative slip occurs at the interface if there is no connection between them.
With the help of a deliberate and appropriate connection provided between the beam and the concrete slab, the slip between them can be eliminated. Since concrete is stronger in compression than in tension, and steel is susceptible to buckling in compression, by the composite action between the two, we can utilize their respective advantages to the fullest extent.
There are many advantages associated with steel-concrete composite construction. Though steel to concrete bond may help shear transfer between the two to certain extent, yet it is neglected as per the codes because of its uncertainty.
All codes therefore, specify positive connectors at the interface of steel and concrete. Effect of Shear Connection on Bending and Shear Stresses The behaviour of composite beams under transverse loading is in two extreme cases where a a full interaction b with no interaction, can best be illustrated by using two identical beams, each having a cross section of b x h and spanning a distance of l, one placed at the top of the other.
No Interaction Case It first assumed that there is no shear connection between the beams, so that they are just seated on one another but act independently. The slip strain i. This shows that slip is very small in comparison to deflection of beam. In order to prevent slip between the two beams at the interface and ensure bending strain compatibility, shear connectors are frequently used.
Since the slip at the interface is small these shear connections, for full composite action, have to be very stiff. As slip strain are now zero everywhere, this case is called "full interaction". The maximum shear stress qmax remains unaltered but occurs at mid depth. Types of Shear Connectors The total shear force at the interface between a concrete slab and steel beam is approximately eight times the total load carried by the beam.
Therefore, mechanical shear connectors are required at the steel-concrete interface. These connectors are designed to a transmit longitudinal shear along the interface and, b prevent separation of steel beam and concrete slab at the interface.
Thus, mechanical shear connectors are provided to transmit the horizontal shear between the steel beam and the concrete slab, ignoring the effect of any bond between the two. It also resists uplift force acting at the steel interface. Commonly used types of shear connectors as per IS: — Code of practice for composite construction in structural steel and concrete.
There are three main types of shear connectors; rigid shear connectors, flexible shear connectors and anchorage shear connectors. These are explained below: Rigid Shear Connectors As the name implies, these connectors are very stiff and they sustain only a small deformation while resisting the shear force. Short bars, angles T-sections are common examples of this type of connectors. In addition, anchorage devices like hopped bars are attached with these connectors to prevent vertical separation.
Flexible Shear Connectors Flexible shear connectors consist of headed studs, channels or tees welded to the top flange of the steel beams come under this category. They derive their stress resistance through bending and undergo large deformation before failure.
The stud connectors are the types used extensively. The shank and weld collar adjacent to steel resist the shear loads whereas the head resists the uplift. In this case, mild steel inclined rods or steel rods in the form of helical stirrups are welded on the top flange of the steel beam. Composite deck slabs are generally competitive where the concrete floor has to be completed quickly and where medium level of fire protection to steel work is sufficient.
There is presently no Indian standard covering the design of composite floor systems using profiled sheeting. Excessive ponding in long span composite floors shall be avoided by providing required propping.
Otherwise, the profiled sheet deflects considerably requiring additional concrete at the center that may add to the concreting cost.
Stud shear connectors are welded through the sheeting on to the top flange of the beam. Insulation requirements for fire usually control the slab thickness above the profile. Thickness values between 65 and mm are sufficient to give a fire rating of up to 2 hours. Lightweight concrete is generally preferred in composite floors due to reduced weight on profiled sheets and enhanced fire-insulation.
Profiled Sheet Decking The steel deck is normally rolled into the desired profile from 22G 0. It is profiled such that the profile heights are usually in the range of 40 — 60 mm whereas higher depth of 85mm is also available. The typical trough width lies between to mm. Generally, spans of the order of 2. There are two well-Known generic types of profiles.
Indentations and protrusions into the rib mobilize the bearing resistance in addition to adhesion and also provide the shear transfer in composite slabs. Profiled Sheeting as permanent Formwork The role and performance of profiled steel deck at various stages of composite action is explained below.
During construction stage, it acts as temporary formwork. Also, it carries the weight of wet concrete, self-weight, workers and equipments. The profile deck must be strong enough to carry this load and stiff enough to be serviceable under the weight of wet concrete. Composite beam stage: The composite beam formed by employing the profiled steel sheeting is different from the one with a normal solid slab, as the profiling would influence its strength and stiffness.
In this case, the profiled deck, which is fixed transverse to the beam, results in voids within the depth of the associated slab. Thus, the area of concrete used in calculating the section properties can only be that depth of slab above the top flange of the profile. In addition, any stud connector welded through the sheeting must lie within the area of concrete in the trough of the profiling. Consequently, if trough is narrow, reduction in strength must be made because of the reduction in area of constraining concrete.
In current design methods, conservatively the steel sheeting is ignored while calculating shear resistance. The steel sheeting provides adequate tensile capacity in order to act with no shear reinforcement.
The shear between the steel and concrete must be carried by friction and bond between the materials. The mechanical keying action of the embossments is of great importance. This is especially so in open trapezoidal profiles, where the embossments must also provide resistance to vertical separation. In addition to structural adequacy, the finished slab must be capable of satisfying the requirements of fire resistance.
The design method defined in EC4 requires that slab be checked firstly for bending capacity, assuming full bond between concrete and steel, secondly for shear bond capacity and, finally, for vertical shear. The analysis of the bending capacity of the slab may be carried out as though the slab was of reinforced concrete with the steel deck acting as reinforcement. However, no satisfactory analytical method has been developed as far for estimating the value shear bond capacity. Based on test data available, the loads at the construction stage often govern the allowable span rather at the composite slab stage.
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Steel Design Pdf. Update and maintain AISC manuals and accompanying design examples in response to revisions in AISC standards and inquiries from within the Committee and the steel construction industry. He has also received many awards for his research and publications. With the 13th edition, both methods are combined in one volume which provides. Most steel construction is done with a type of steel called mild steel.
Buy article PDF. Full Text PDF. A number of desirable characteristics concerning excellent durability, aesthetics, recyclability, high ductility and fire resistance have made stainless steel a preferred option in engineering practice. However, the relatively high initial cost has greatly restricted the application of stainless steel as a major structural material in general construction. This drawback can be partially overcome by introducing composite stainless steel-concrete structures, which provides a cost-efficient and sustainable solution for future stainless steel construction. This paper presents a preliminary numerical study on stainless steel-concrete composite beam-to-column joints with bolted flush endplates.
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Show all documents Top PDF Design of steel-concrete composite structures for the construction stage. Design of steel-concrete composite structures for the construction stage When concrete is placed to a given height within the period required for its initial set called rapid placement , the pressure acting on the plates is comparable to full liquid head full fluid or hydrostatic pressure. With slower rate of placement, concrete at the bottom begins to harden and lateral pressure is reduced to less than full fluid pressure. The effective lateral pressure which is a modified hydrostatic pressure is influenced by the height, rate of placement, temperature of concrete mix which affects setting time , use of retarders and other chemical and mineral admixtures, vibration type, extent and depth used to consolidate the fresh concrete.
Static analysis of FGM cylinders by a mesh-free method M. Foroutan, R. Moradi-Dastjerdi,and R. Abstract In this paper static analysis of FGM cylinders subjected to internal and external pressure was carried out by a mesh-free method. In this analysis MLS shape functions are used for approximation of displacement field in the weak form of equilibrium equation and essential boundary conditions are imposed by transformation method.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. The Conference was organised and sponsored by Paisley College of Technology. There is little doubt that composite materials are rightfulIy claiming a prominent role in structural engineering in the widest sense. Moreover, the range and variety of useful composites has expanded to a level inconceivable a decade ago.
This paper is a kind of introduction to the special issue of CEER devoted to metal and composite structures. Selected papers included in this special issue of CEER were shortly presented in this editorial. Experimental research , CEER ; 24 2 : Home About us Subject Areas Contacts. Advanced Search Help. Sciendo degruyter. Sign In.
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