File Name: petroleum formation and occurrence .zip
Dumble, E. Edward Orton, in his Report on the Occurrence of Petroleum, NaturalGas and Asphalt Rock in Western Kentucky, thus clearly states his ideas of theuniversal dissemination and rare accumulations of the bitumens:. The valuable accumulations of thesesubstances are rare, it is true, but one can scarcely go amiss of petroleum, asphalt or gas, at least in small quantities, among the stratified rocks that retain their original structure.
Although it is recognized that the original source of carbon and hydrogen was in the materials that made up primordial Earth , it is generally accepted that these two elements had to pass through an organic phase to be combined into the varied complex molecules recognized as hydrocarbons. The organic material that is the source of most hydrocarbons has probably been derived from single-celled planktonic free-floating plants, such as diatoms and blue-green algae , and single-celled planktonic animals, such as foraminifera , which live in aquatic environments of marine, brackish, or fresh water. Such simple organisms are known to have been abundant long before the Paleozoic Era , which began some million years ago. Rapid burial of the remains of the single-celled planktonic plants and animals within fine-grained sediments effectively preserved them. This provided the organic materials, the so-called protopetroleum, for later diagenesis a series of processes involving biological, chemical, and physical changes into true petroleum. The first, or immature, stage of hydrocarbon formation is dominated by biological activity and chemical rearrangement, which convert organic matter to kerogen. This dark-coloured insoluble product of bacterially altered plant and animal detritus is the source of most hydrocarbons generated in the later stages.
Millions of years ago, algae and plants lived in shallow seas. After dying and sinking to the seafloor, the organic material mixed with other sediments and was buried. Over millions of years under high pressure and high temperature, the remains of these organisms transformed into what we know today as fossil fuels. Today, petroleum is found in vast underground reservoirs where ancient seas were located. Petroleum reservoirs can be found beneath land or the ocean floor. Crude oil is usually black or dark brown, but can also be yellowish, reddish, tan, or even greenish. Variations in color indicate the distinct chemical compositions of different supplies of crude oil.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. The interpretive dilemma becomes further aggra- vated by chemical and microbial alterations that occur after intro- duction of a particular set of hydrocarbon compounds to the mar ine environment, a set originally attributable to a source but subsequently modif led. This section bight ights the main compositional character- istics of the hydrocarbon sources to the mar ine environment and distinguishes features of each source. The chemical composition of crude oils from different producing regions, and even from within a particular formation, can vary tremendously. Crude oils contain thousands of different chemical compounds owing to processes dur ing petroleum formation resulting in "molecular scrambling.
AAPG Bulletin ;; 97 3 : — The basin has a complex history, having evolved from a rift basin to an arc basin and finally having become a retroarc foreland basin.
It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation , i. It consists of naturally occurring hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and may contain miscellaneous organic compounds. A fossil fuel , petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, mostly zooplankton and algae , are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum has mostly been recovered by oil drilling.
Said Keshta, Farouk J. Metwalli, H. In this paper, organic matter content, type, and maturity of source rocks have been evaluated and integrated with the results of basin modeling to improve our understanding of burial history and timing of hydrocarbon generation. Modeling of the empirical data of source rock suggests that the Abu Madi formation entered the oil in the middle to upper Miocene, while the Sidi Salem formation entered the oil window in the lower Miocene.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Authors: Tissot , B. Current and authoritative with many advanced concepts for petroleum geologists, geochemists, geophysicists, or engineers engaged in the search for or production of crude oil and natural gas, or interested in their habitats and the factors that control them, this book is an excellent reference. It is recommended without reservation.
Petroleum Formation and Occurrence. Second Revised and Enlarged Edition. With Figures. Springer-Verlag. X^OSTO/>7^. Berlin Heidelberg New York.
Нам нужно число - значит, речь идет о математике. Еще одна игра слов мистера Танкадо: разница означает результат вычитания. - Верно! - сказал Беккер с экрана. - Может быть, у этих элементов разное число протонов или чего-то. Если вычесть… - Он прав, - сказал Джабба, повернувшись к Соши. - На этих таблицах есть числа. Количество протонов.
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