File Name: difference between interpersonal communication and mass communication .zip
Before we dive into the history of communication, it is important that we have a shared understanding of what we mean by the word communication. For our purposes in this book, we will define communication as the process of generating meaning by sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal symbols and signs that are influenced by multiple contexts.
Our focus in this book is on human communication. The ability to think outside our immediate reality is what allows us to create elaborate belief systems, art, philosophy, and academic theories. The emergence of elite classes and the rise of armies required records and bookkeeping, which furthered the spread of written symbols. This period has featured the most rapid dispersion of a new method of communication, as the spread of the Internet and the expansion of digital and personal media signaled the beginning of the digital age.
Aristotle is a logical person to start with when tracing the development of the communication scholarship. His writings on communication, although not the oldest, are the most complete and systematic.
Ancient Greek philosophers and scholars such as Aristotle theorized about the art of rhetoric, which refers to speaking well and persuasively. Today, we hear the word rhetoric used in negative ways. This leads us to believe that rhetoric refers to misleading, false, or unethical communication, which is not at all in keeping with the usage of the word by ancient or contemporary communication experts.
Much of the writing and teaching about rhetoric conveys the importance of being an ethical rhetor , or communicator. The connections among rhetoric, policy making, and legal proceedings show that communication and citizenship have been connected since the study of communication began.
Throughout this book, we will continue to make connections between communication, ethics, and civic engagement. Communication studies as a distinct academic discipline with departments at universities and colleges has only existed for a little over one hundred years Keith, There was a distinction of focus and interest among professors of speech.
While some focused on the quality of ideas, arguments, and organization, others focused on coaching the performance and delivery aspects of public speaking Keith, The formalization of speech departments led to an expanded view of the role of communication. Even though Aristotle and other ancient rhetoricians and philosophers had theorized the connection between rhetoric and citizenship, the role of the communicator became the focus instead of solely focusing on the message.
James A. Later, as social psychology began to expand in academic institutions, speech communication scholars saw places for connection to further expand definitions of communication to include social and psychological contexts.
Today, you can find elements of all these various aspects of communication being studied in communication departments. If we use President Obama as a case study, we can see the breadth of the communication field. Within one department, you may have fairly traditional rhetoricians who study the speeches of President Obama in comparison with other presidential rhetoric. Others may study debates between presidential candidates, dissecting the rhetorical strategies used, for example, by Mitt Romney and Barack Obama.
Expanding from messages to channels of communication, scholars may study how different media outlets cover presidential politics. At an interpersonal level, scholars may study what sorts of conflicts emerge within families that have liberal and conservative individuals.
At a cultural level, communication scholars could study how the election of an African American president creates a narrative of postracial politics. Our tour from Aristotle to Obama was quick, but hopefully instructive.
The five main forms of communication are intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, and mass communication. In the following we will discuss the similarities and differences among each form of communication, including its definition, level of intentionality, goals, and contexts.
Intrapersonal communication is communication with oneself using internal vocalization or reflective thinking. Intrapersonal communication is triggered by some internal or external stimulus. We may, for example, communicate with our self about what we want to eat due to the internal stimulus of hunger, or we may react intrapersonally to an event we witness.
Unlike other forms of communication, intrapersonal communication takes place only inside our heads. The other forms of communication must be perceived by someone else to count as communication. Intrapersonal communication serves several social functions. For example, a person may use self-talk to calm himself down in a stressful situation, or a shy person may remind herself to smile during a social event.
Intrapersonal communication also helps build and maintain our self-concept. Competent intrapersonal communication helps facilitate social interaction and can enhance our well-being. Sometimes we intrapersonally communicate for the fun of it.
We also communicate intrapersonally to pass time. We can, however, engage in more intentional intrapersonal communication. In fact, deliberate self-reflection can help us become more competent communicators as we become more mindful of our own behaviors. For example, your internal voice may praise or scold you based on a thought or action.
Intrapersonal communication is not created with the intention that another person will perceive it. In all the other levels, the fact that the communicator anticipates consumption of their message is very important. Interpersonal communication is communication between people whose lives mutually influence one another. Interpersonal communication builds, maintains, and ends our relationships, and we spend more time engaged in interpersonal communication than the other forms of communication.
Interpersonal communication occurs in various contexts and is addressed in subfields of study within communication studies such as intercultural communication, organizational communication, health communication, and computer-mediated communication. After all, interpersonal relationships exist in all those contexts. Interpersonal communication can be planned or unplanned, but since it is interactive, it is usually more structured and influenced by social expectations than intrapersonal communication.
Interpersonal communication is also more goal oriented than intrapersonal communication and fulfills instrumental and relational needs. In terms of instrumental needs, the goal may be as minor as greeting someone to fulfill a morning ritual or as major as conveying your desire to be in a committed relationship with someone.
Interpersonal communication meets relational needs by communicating the uniqueness of a specific relationship. In order to be a competent interpersonal communicator, you need conflict management skills and listening skills, among others, to maintain positive relationships. Group communication is communication among three or more people interacting to achieve a shared goal.
Group work in an academic setting provides useful experience and preparation for group work in professional settings. Group communication is more intentional and formal than interpersonal communication. Individuals in a group are often assigned to their position within a group. Group communication is often task focused, meaning that members of the group work together for an explicit purpose or goal that affects each member of the group.
Since group members also communicate with and relate to each other interpersonally and may have preexisting relationships or develop them during the course of group interaction, elements of interpersonal communication occur within group communication too. Public communication is a sender-focused form of communication in which one person is typically responsible for conveying information to an audience. But, just like group communication, public speaking is an important part of our academic, professional, and civic lives.
When compared to interpersonal and group communication, public communication is the most consistently intentional, formal, and goal-oriented form of communication we have discussed so far. Public communication, at least in Western societies, is also more sender focused than interpersonal or group communication. Despite being formal, public speaking is very similar to the conversations that we have in our daily interactions. Public communication becomes mass communication when it is transmitted to many people through print or electronic media.
Radio, podcasts, and books are other examples of mass media. The technology required to send mass communication messages distinguishes it from the other forms of communication. A certain amount of intentionality goes into transmitting a mass communication message since it usually requires one or more extra steps to convey the message. The intentionality and goals of the person actually creating the message, such as the writer, television host, or talk show guest, vary greatly.
Unlike interpersonal, group, and public communication, there is no immediate verbal and nonverbal feedback loop in mass communication. With new media technologies like Twitter, blogs, and Facebook, feedback is becoming more immediate.
The technology to mass-produce and distribute communication messages brings with it the power for one voice or a series of voices to reach and affect many people. The potential consequences of unethical mass communication are important to consider.
The multiple subfields and concentrations within the field allow for exciting opportunities for study in academic contexts but can create confusion and uncertainty when a person considers what they might do for their career after studying communication. Look at the communication courses offered at your school to get an idea of where the communication department on your campus fits into the overall field of study.
Some departments are more general, offering students a range of courses to provide a well-rounded understanding of communication. Many departments offer concentrations or specializations within the major such as public relations, rhetoric, interpersonal communication, electronic media production, corporate communication. It would be unfortunate for a student interested in public relations to end up in a department that focuses more on rhetoric or broadcasting, so doing your research ahead of time is key.
This book, for example, should help you build communication competence and skills in interpersonal communication, intercultural communication, group communication, and public speaking, among others. Dance, F. Keith, W. McCroskey, J. Robert N. Poe, M. Learning Objectives Define communication.
Discuss the history of communication from ancient to modern times. List the five forms of communication. Distinguish among the five forms of communication. Review the various career options for students who study communication.
Forms of Communication The five main forms of communication are intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, and mass communication. Intrapersonal Communication Intrapersonal communication is communication with oneself using internal vocalization or reflective thinking. Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal communication is communication between people whose lives mutually influence one another.
Group Communication Group communication is communication among three or more people interacting to achieve a shared goal. Public Communication Public communication is a sender-focused form of communication in which one person is typically responsible for conveying information to an audience. Mass Communication Public communication becomes mass communication when it is transmitted to many people through print or electronic media.
Sales, customer service, management, real estate, human resources, training and development.
Mediated communication or mediated interaction less often, mediated discourse refers to communication carried out by the use of information communication technology and can be contrasted to face-to-face communication. Historically, mediated communication was much rarer than the face-to-face method. Compared to face-to-face communication, mediated communication engages fewer senses, transmits fewer symbolic cues most mediated communication does not transmit facial expressions and is seen as more private. The type of mediated technology used can also influence its meaning. Lundby distinguished between three forms of mediated communication: mediated interpersonal communication , interactive communication , and mass communication.
For details on it including licensing , click here. This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author but see below , don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. This content was accessible as of December 29, , and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. Normally, the author and publisher would be credited here.
Throughout history, ways of communicating has evolved. Though all communication includes transmitting messages from a source to a receiver, interpersonal communication and mass communication differ in many ways. When conversation is going on between two people — and sometimes a few people — interpersonal communication is occurring. This type of communication is more personal than mass communication, and feedback occurs often and right away. As a result, communicating interpersonally makes it hard to be able to tell who is the source and who is the receiver. If I did the same thing in America though, I would get a handshake back right away.
With interpersonal communication, you can sometimes smell the breath of the person with whom you are talking! (Come to think of it, perhaps that is not.
The key difference between communication and mass communication is that communication refers to the overall exchange of a message or information whereas mass communication refers to the exchange of a message or information through mass media to a large audience. Communication is the foundation of all social intercourse, and it is the basis of society.
Before we dive into the history of communication, it is important that we have a shared understanding of what we mean by the word communication. For our purposes in this book, we will define communication as the process of generating meaning by sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal symbols and signs that are influenced by multiple contexts. Our focus in this book is on human communication. The ability to think outside our immediate reality is what allows us to create elaborate belief systems, art, philosophy, and academic theories. The emergence of elite classes and the rise of armies required records and bookkeeping, which furthered the spread of written symbols. This period has featured the most rapid dispersion of a new method of communication, as the spread of the Internet and the expansion of digital and personal media signaled the beginning of the digital age. Aristotle is a logical person to start with when tracing the development of the communication scholarship.
Какие вообще у них есть доказательства, что Танкадо действительно создал Цифровую крепость. Только его собственные утверждения в электронных посланиях. И конечно… ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Компьютер висел уже почти двадцать часов. Она, разумеется, знала, что были и другие программы, над которыми он работал так долго, программы, создать которые было куда легче, чем нераскрываемый алгоритм. Вирусы. Холод пронзил все ее тело.
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