File Name: ancient and medieval history of ethiopia .zip
Dessalegn Rahmato has also contributed several papers on contemporary issues on the history of the environment Dessalegn, They shed light on the impact of environmental degradation on social unrest and on changes of regime both in the ancient and modern periods of Ethiopia.
Medieval environmental history is rarely studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this paper is to reassess the historical background of the environmental situation of medieval and post-medieval Ethiopia. This paper will deal with the environmental situation along northern and northeastern routes of Ethiopia. They entered the country motivated by missionary concerns, colonialist interests and a few from scientific motives.
All travelers to Ethiopia had a culture of gathering published information before their arrival into the country, but their description s of Ethiopia usually originate from their encounters with the people or the environment. With regard to the environment, they collected information regarding their physical difficulties or their disastrous impressions during their journeys to reach the royal court or regional lords.
The attempts of environmental descriptions of these travelers can be observed from the narration of the physical geography of the country like the watersheds, topography, the seasonal rainfall and vegetation or the description of forest and the wildlife during their short stay in the country.
It is clear that most of the environmental descriptions of the European travelers during the period under discussion were not a systematic collection but rather reflected descriptions of the curiosity of explorers. The European explorers sought to ally with this legendary king Sergew Hable Selassie, to counter the expansion of the Ottoman Empire and the Ottoman domination over the Red Sea trade Abir, Individual adventurers recorded their sojourn in Ethiopia and went back to Europe with ample information on the environmental situation of the country.
The first is the collection of the Italian compiler Alessandro Zorzi, who collected data on Ethiopia from two important classes of informants. Ethiopian pilgrims to Jerusalem later came to Italy and informed him about their country.
The other informants of Zorzi were European travelers or adventurers who were in search of the legendary Prester John on the coast of the Indian Ocean. The Portuguese delegation stayed six years. The account of the embassy was written by Francisco Alvares, the chaplain of the embassy, who provides ample information on the environment and seasonal situation of their stay in the country. Zorzi describes a large part of the kingdom extending from Hamassen Eritrea as far as the present day Ifat or Gedem in North Shoa.
He mentions the existence of wild animals, particularly elephants and lions. Besides, he refers to a number of large forests throughout the geographical distribution of these animals:. Elephants are found in large numbers in the land of the Presta, and most where there are large woods [boschi] and hills in damp woody places where there is water and mud, as in the region and province called Geden and Gen and Anguot and Geda and Tegre and Messoa, where there are large woods Crawford, It is a great peril traversing this evil pass, because it is a two days' journey, all through level ground and very large woods, and very high and dense thickets of thorn bushes; and in these two marches, besides that the road is flat and very long, and that they frequently cut them, that is, the thorn bushes near the road, and set fire to them, yet they do not burn, except those that are cut and dried, and some that have withered at the roots, because the thorn bushes which are standing remain in their strength.
It is about two leagues from this road to the district of the Dobas, at the commencement of the mountain range, and the ground is flat throughout these thorn thickets.
There are in these lands or mountains an infinite number of elephants and other animals, as in the other mountains Alvares, He was struck by the cotinual struggle of the people with the wild animals that attacked the villages in search of food Alvares, He narrates that one night their pack animals were snatched from their camps by wild animals and that some members of the embassy observed elephants not far from the villages in the vicinity Alvares, This may have been the last elephant population in these regions because elephants were no longer mentioned in later travel accounts.
The early 16 th -century accounts report the same thing:. In this land of the Presta it rains in June, July and August, and mid-September, and at no season does it ever snow or freeze, nor there storms Crawford, The rainfall was so heavy that they could not cross the Wonchit River Crawford, 44, The embassy of Portugal escaped a flash-flood near Angot that carried away much of the baggage of the delegates Alvares, Descending farther to the south in Angot the land of Bugna and Lasta the vegetation was reduced and the mountains and hills were dry Alvares, The swarms of locusts devoured all green vegetation.
Many agricultural lands were devastated and the people were obliged to quit their homes and go to other places:. In these parts and in all the dominions of Prester John there is a very great plague of locusts which destroy the fresh crops in a fearful manner. Their multitude, which covers the earth and fills the air, is not to be believed; they darken the light of the sun. I say again that it is not a thing to be believed by anyone who has not seen them.
They are not general in all the kingdoms every year, for if they were so, the country would be a desert in consequence of the destruction they cause: but one year they are in one part, and another year in another. This country is distant from Barua, from which place we were thirty days in travelling the journey.
While we were in this country I went with the ambassador who came from Portugal, and five Genoese with us, towards a country named Aagao. We travelled five days through country entirely depopulated, and through maize canes [sic] as thick as canes for propping vines, it cannot be told how they were all cut and bitten, as if bitten by asses, all done by the locusts. The wheat, barley, and tafo [teff], as though they had never been sown there, the trees without any leaves, and the tender twigs all eaten, there was no memory of grass of any sort, and if we had not been prepared with mules laden with barley and provisions for ourselves, we and the mules would have perished.
This country was entirely covered with locusts without wings, and they said these were the seed of those which had been there and destroyed the country, and they said that as soon as they had wings they would at once go and seek their country. I am silent as to the multitude of these without wings, because it is not to be believed, and it is right that I should relate what more I saw in this country Alvares, The people were going away from this country, and we found the roads full of men, women, and children, on foot, and some in their arm with their little bundles on their heads, removing to a country where they might find provisions it was a pitiful sight to see them Alvares, Almeida comments that the recurrent invasions of locusts were one of the sources of the poverty of the country:.
Inevitably, all this warfare and large geographical displacements in the troubled kingdom would probably must have caused huge environmental degradation. The member of the Jesuit mission Manoel de Almeida criticizes Alvares for his wrong information on the woods and wealth of Ethiopia. According to him, the royal court moved from place to place due to lack of firewood.
His third volume also gives interesting information regarding the ecology of the northwest. Clearly, he followed the caravan trade routes. He mentions different types of birds and wild animals he saw on the way. He notes that his best mule was carried off by hyenas.
He reports hearing the roaring of lions during his journeys. In Weggera he reports that along with the bandits in this northwestern area, its fertile lands were threatened by insects, mice and rats Bruce, vol. The environmental descriptions of Bruce focus mostly on the northwest except for some information he collected on the south of Ethiopia.
Ethiopian diplomatic relations with European countries revived in the 19 th century. Among the many travelers, the German missionary envoy Johann Ludwig Krapf is of special interest to our topic because of his return journey via a northern route that lays probably not far from the early 16 th -century route. His reports and descriptions indicate that major environmental changes had occurred. According to his account, in he traveled through the eastern escarpment of the district of Tehuledere south of Kombolcha , where he was informed that the country had been depopulated six years earlier due to outbreak of cholera, famine and the ravages of war.
The nature of the territory of Tehooladere is most conspicuous and excellent, and gave me the appearance of those Galla countries which I have traversed in the south of Shoa. The soil of Tehooladere is excellent for cultivation, if there were only hands enough to cultivate the black fallow ground. In Lasta and Wag, he reports that he found fresh water, beautiful scenery and even juniper trees and acacia in abundance.
But he was amazed at the absence of life in this rich area. The present population of Lasta seems to be almost nothing, having been destroyed by famine, war, and sickness, as I was told by the natives whom I asked about this subject.
The absence of wildlife is remarked along this route. Natural disaster and regional conflicts probably led to both human and wild life migration. The lack of encounters with elephants could indicate that they were exterminated for the sake of their lucrative ivory. The ecology was degraded and people were forced to migrate. Travelers remarked that in spite of the fertility of the country poverty was extremely high due to recurrent environmental disasters drought, floods, locusts, etc.
The absence of descriptions of woodlands and wild animals like elephants along the main travel route of northeastern Ethiopia in post th -century travel accounts bears witness to obvious environmental changes. The Oromo pastoralist expansion from the south and southeast may have aggravated the situation in terms of demographic and economic pressure.
European travelers described that the people adapted to environmental changes in different ways. For example, people could migrate en masse to other areas; regarding the scarcity of wood, it is narrated that people made use of animal dung as fuel. Demographic and economic pressure on the environment of the northeastern highlands may have led to the recurrent famine and social unrest in the contemporary history of these regions Lanz, ; Rubenson, Abir, M.
Alvares, F. Lord Stanley of Aderley , ed. Bard, K. Beckingham, C. Beke, C. Bruce, J. Crawford, O. Isenberg, C. Isenberg and J. Krapf detailing their proceedings in the kingdom of Shoa and jouneys in other parts of Abyssinia in the years , , , and , London, Cass.
Lanz, J. McCann, J. Pankhurst, R. Rubenson, S. Check if your institution has already acquired this book: authentification to OpenEdition Freemium for Books. You can suggest to your institution to acquire one or more ebooks published on OpenEdition Books. Do not hesitate to give them our contact information: OpenEdition - Freemium Department access openedition.
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It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti and Somaliland to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Sudan to the west and Sudan to the northwest. Ethiopian national identity is grounded in the historic and contemporary roles of Christianity and Islam, and the independence of Ethiopia from foreign rule, stemming from the various ancient Ethiopian kingdoms of antiquity. Oral literature tells that the monarchy was founded by the Solomonic dynasty of the Queen of Sheba , under its first king, Menelik I. During the late—19th-century Scramble for Africa , Ethiopia and Liberia were the only two nations that preserved their sovereignty from long-term colonisation by a European colonial power , and many newly independent nations on the continent adopted its flag colours. During this period, Ethiopia established its modern borders through extensive conquest of territories to its east, west and south. During Italian rule, the government abolished the centuries-old practice of slavery ,  and urbanization steadily increased. Ethiopia and Eritrea follow the Ethiopian calendar , which is approximately seven years and three months behind the Gregorian , and write with the ancient Ge'ez script , one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world.
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The article covers the prehistory and history of Ethiopia from its emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle. Due to migration and imperial expansion, it grew to include many other primarily Afro-Asiatic -speaking communities, including Amhara , Oromos , Somalis , Tigray , Afars , Sidama , Gurage , Agaw and Harari , among others. One of the early kingdoms to rise to power in the territory was the kingdom of D'mt in the 10th century BC, which established its capital at Yeha. In the first century AD the Aksumite Kingdom rose to power in the Tigray Region with its capital at Aksum and grew into a major power on the Red Sea , subjugating Yemen and Meroe and converting to Christianity in the early fourth century.
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При этом внезапное отключение электроснабжения не прерывало работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА и его фреоновой системы охлаждения. Если бы этого не было, температура от трех миллионов работающих процессоров поднялась бы до недопустимого уровня - скорее всего силиконовые чипы воспламенились бы и расплавились. Поэтому такая перспектива даже не обсуждалась. Сьюзан старалась сохранять самообладание. Мысли ее по-прежнему возвращались к сотруднику лаборатории систем безопасности, распластавшемуся на генераторах. Она снова прошлась по кнопкам.
Под главной клавиатурой была еще одна, меньшего размера, с крошечными кнопками. На каждой - буква алфавита. Сьюзан повернулась к. - Так скажите же мне. Стратмор задумался и тяжело вздохнул. - Пожалуйста, сядь, Сьюзан.
Техники обнимали друг друга, подбрасывая вверх длинные полосы распечаток. Бринкерхофф обнимал Мидж. Соши заливалась слезами. - Джабба, - спросил Фонтейн, - много они похитили. - Совсем мало, - сказал Джабба, посмотрев на монитор. - Всего лишь какие-то обрывки, в полном виде -. Фонтейн медленно кивнул и улыбнулся одними уголками губ.
В отчаянии он наблюдал за тем, как расплывчатые фигуры агентов обыскивают бездыханные тела в поисках листка бумаги с беспорядочным набором букв и цифр.
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