File Name: world history and civilization 1 .zip
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This forest of Buddhist shrines remains at Myanmar's Burma's first capital. A civilization is a complex human society , usually made up of different cities, with certain characteristics of cultural and technological development. In many parts of the world, early civilizations formed when people began coming together in urban settlements. Still, most anthropologists agree on some criteria to define a society as a civilization. First, civilizations have some kind of urban settlements and are not nomadic.
The history of civilization started in the Middle East about bce , whereas the North China civilization began about a millennium and a half later. The Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations flourished almost simultaneously during the first civilizational phase — bce. Although these civilizations differed, they shared monumental literary achievements. The need for the perpetuation of these highly developed civilizations made writing and formal education indispensable. Egyptian culture and education were preserved and controlled chiefly by the priests , a powerful intellectual elite in the Egyptian theocracy who also served as the political bulwarks by preventing cultural diversity.
Civilizations are intimately associated with and often further defined by other socio-politico-economic characteristics, such as centralization , the domestication of both humans and other organisms, specialization of labour , culturally-ingrained ideologies of progress and supremacism , monumental architecture , taxation , societal dependence upon farming and expansionism. Historically, "a civilization" has often been understood as a larger and "more advanced" culture , in implied contrast to smaller, supposedly primitive cultures. Civilizations are organized densely-populated settlements divided into hierarchical social classes with a ruling elite and subordinate urban and rural populations, which engage in intensive agriculture , mining , small-scale manufacture and trade. Civilization concentrates power, extending human control over the rest of nature, including over other human beings. Civilization, as its etymology see below suggests, is a concept originally associated with towns and cities. The earliest emergence of civilizations is generally connected with the final stages of the Neolithic Revolution , culminating in the relatively rapid process of urban revolution and state-formation , a political development associated with the appearance of a governing elite. He said that the world crisis was from humanity losing the ethical idea of civilization, "the sum total of all progress made by man in every sphere of action and from every point of view in so far as the progress helps towards the spiritual perfecting of individuals as the progress of all progress".
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World History: Cultures, States, and Societies to Download Lower Resolution Version World History: Cultures, States, and Societies to offers a comprehensive introduction to the history of humankind from prehistory to
E-mail: b. At its inception, the idea of civilization was imbued with a sense of progress, peace, and optimism. The historical record, however, belies much of this sense of optimism. Somewhat paradoxically, civilization has come to be closely associated with conflict and conquest. In the two-hundred-and-sixty years since the term was coined, many things have been done in the name of civilization; sadly, among them are such grave matters as war, conquest, and colonialism. The concept of civilization occupies a particularly prominent and complicated place in the history of ideas. Its place in world history more generally is even more complicated, as alluded to above.
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