File Name: formation of day and night by elie.zip
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From the creation of Israel through the present day, Syria has been one, if not the most, implacable of Israel's enemies.
From until , Syria was in more of a position to express her dislike and wish to put an end to the Jewish state by firing mortar shells from the Syrian occupied Golan Heights into the Jewish settlements of the Upper Galilee below. For 19 years, Jewish settlements in the north were under constant threat of Syrian guns. Today, one can see the former Syrian bunkers that remain on the Golan Heights from as well as the tanks from Israel has had a quiet northern border on the Golan side for 32 years.
The Syrians have used Israel's northern border with Lebanon to harass Israel the way they used to from the Golan Heights. Since , the Golan has been up for discussion in the peace talks. But it strikes a very emotional chord among Israelis due to its historic and strategic significance, in addition to its wild beauty.
When the Golan was captured in , at almost the end of the Six Day war, settlers in the north could finally breathe a sigh of relief. And much of the credit for Israel's ability to capture the Golan was due to Eli Cohen, Israel's greatest spy. The Golan is not only important for its military significance. The three major tributaries of the upper Jordan River - the Dan, the Baniyas, and the Hatzbani - all originate ion the Golan.
The melting winter snows produce a huge run-off of water which make the Golan itself a beautifully verdant area in the late winter and spring, and irrigate the Hula and Jordan Valleys below. The Kinneret supplies Israel with most of its water needs.
In the 's, Israel developed a national water carrier which diverted water from the Kinneret into a pipeline that irrigated much of the country - and especially Israel's arid south. Israel tried to obtain the cooperation of her Arab neighbors for the plan but the Arabs would not agree, even when the United States tried to use its diplomatic leverage for the furtherance of the plan. The Arabs would have none of it, and decided to "divert the sources of the Jordan River which originated in Arab-held territory.
Syria brought hydraulic engineers and diversion equipment to actualize the scheme. This coincided with the continuance of Palestinian terrorist infiltrators arriving from the Syrian border, along with a continual flow of Soviet technical assistance to Syria.
Eli Cohen was born in Alexandria, Egypt, on December 26, We may recall the Egyptian-Jewish spies from the Operation Susannah fiasco, which we learned about at the beginning of the course. They were caught spying for Israel in and some of them were hanged. A number were only released 14 years later, after the War. While Eli was not directly involved with the Operation Susannah spies, he was involved with pro-Israel activity, and he was brutally questioned by Egypt's Intelligence Services. Even after the blown operation led to the demise of the Operation Susannah spies, Eli Cohen left Egypt for Israel in order to undergo intensive espionage training in the summer of He even trained at the same facility "that had served as home to his doomed Susannah compatriots in At the beginning of the War, when Israel occupied the Sinai, Eli Cohen was detained by the Egyptian authorities, and was expelled from Egypt along with the remainder of Alexandrian Jews at the end of the war.
He arrived in Israel on February 8, Eli Cohen, at 29, offered his services to the Israeli Intelligence Services but was rebuked twice. He wasn't even drafted into regular service, but was "placed in a reserve Israeli Air Force formation as a logistics clerk. He worked as an accountant. Employment was not always steady, and he soon had to rely more on Nadia to help support their marriage, which would quickly lead to children. By , however, Israeli Intelligence was ready to take another look at Eli Cohen.
Eli, after all, was born in an Arab country, had oriental features, was known to be selfless and fearless in pursuit of a cause, and had knowledge of Arabic, English, and French. The border with Syria was heating up as well. One day in Israeli Intelligence approached him about working for them again. At first he refused. But within a month he had lost his Tel Aviv-based accountancy job.
When Intelligence came by a second time, he jumped at it. He was taught high-speed evasive driving techniques, Weapons proficiency especially with a wide variety of small arms , topography, map reading, sabotage, and, most importantly, radio transmissions and cryptography. These skills were instrumental in ensuring the safety and survival of one Kamal Amin Ta'abet: Eli Cohen's new identity.
One of the most difficult tasks for Eli Cohen was to learn the intricate and unmistakable phonetic tune of Syrian Arabic; prior to his intelligence training, his Egyptian accent was undeniable. Intelligence created a completely new identity for him. His father's name was Amin Ta'bet, and his mother's Sa'adia Ibrahim. According to his fictional biography, in "the family moved to Argentina, where they opened a successful textile business.
In early , Chaim Herzog, Chief of Military Intelligence and later president of Israel, signed the document authorizing Cohen's use as a spy. He was driven to the airport, where his wife Nadia saw him off. She understood from him that he would be working for the Ministry of Defense, but she didn't know where or in what capacity. She was told he would be completely safe and she believed that until his capture in He soon established himself in the social and cultural life of the Syrian community of Buenos Aires and was known as a wealthy businessman who was generous, tipped well, and loved the night life.
He soon became accepted, well-liked and respected, and made contacts with politicians, diplomats and military officials working out of the Syrian Embassy. One of them was Colonel Amin al-Hafaz, a supporter of the secular-leftist Ba'ath party.
Cohen's contacts, nurtured through a string of lavish dinner parties, social occasions, and friendships with those in high places, led to invitations to visit Damascus and to set up a business venture there. He was promised support in any venture he might wish to undertake, and the generous sums of cash which he appeared to possess appealed to the unscrupulous who thought he could provide "grease" to their financial ambitions, as well as patriotic Syrians who hoped for an infusion of foreign capital into the Syrian state.
Nine months later, in late , Eli came back to Israel for a visit with his wife Nadia. But he spent most of his time in Tel Aviv "perfecting his cover and being briefed on Aman's requirements of him in Syria, as well as last-minute intelligence data needed for his mission. Cohen arrived in Damascus in February , posing as a businessman from Argentina who had returned to his native land. At the end of Syria dissolved its union with Egypt, which had lasted a mere three years.
The Ba'ath party was rising to power and Eli Cohen wanted to be there when it actually took power. He carefully cultivated contacts with the Ba'ath leadership, which included the Syrian military attache in Argentina, General Amin al-Hafaz. He continued his social life, spending a lot of time in cafes listening to political gossip. He also held parties at his home, which turned into orgies for high-placed Syrian ministers, businessmen, and others, who used Eli's apartment "for assignations with various women, including Defense Ministry secretaries, airline hostesses, and Syrian singing stars.
Eli, who would feign intoxication, remained sober and listened carefully. Eli himself was not above the spicier part of a spy's life either.
He did not object, in fact, to the idea of a ladies' man reputation. He had seventeen lovers in Syria, all dazzling beauties with a fair degree of family power. With time he was taken even more into the confidence of the highest echelons of power.
He became a confidante of George Saif, high up in the Ministry of Information. One day Cohen was sitting in Saif's office reading a classified document while the Syrian was on the phone. One of the ministry's directors entered the room unannounced. Saif calmly replied, 'There's nothing to worry about. He's a trusted friend. When the Ba'ath took power in , Eli was firmly entrenched in Syrian high society.
Meanwhile, every few days he transmitted important information to his Israeli handlers via a radio transmitter he had hidden in his room. Periodically Eli would return to Israel to speak with his Israeli handlers and visit his wife and small children.
Altogether, he returned to Israel three times between and At the beginning of this lecture we talked about the Syrian project to divert water from the headwaters of the Jordan away from Israel. Eli was friends with two highly placed Army officers, Colonels Hatoum and Dali, who were fully informed about the scheme. In early , Eli was able to radio Tel Aviv that the channel was being dug along the entire length of the Syrian Heights to receive the diverted flow of the Baniyas River - one of the Jordan's major sources - and empty into Jordanian territory.
Due to this information, the Israeli Air Force was able to obliterate the Syrian plans for the diversion scheme by shelling and bombing the bulldozers and other equipment used for the scheme in early Eli's connections enabled him to be taken to the Golan Heights - a major strategic asset for Syria from As we saw, the Syrians continually harassed Israel's northern settlements from The Golan Heights defenses were top-secret and closed only to top military staff.
With senior staff officers acting as guides, Eli Cohen was provided an in-depth intelligence briefing of monumental proportions. He remembered and passed on to Israeli Intelligence the "positioning of every Syrian gun, trench, and machine-gun nest in each Golan Heights fortification; tank traps, designed to impede any Israeli attack, were also identified and memorized for future targeting.
As the Syrian Army officer explained to Eli the fortifications the Syrian Army had built, Eli suggested that the Syrians plant trees there to deceive the Israelis into thinking it was unfortified, as well as to provide shade and beauty for the soldiers stationed there.
The Syrian officer readily agreed - and Eli immediately passed the information onto Israel. Based on the eucalyptus trees, Israel knew exactly where the Syrian fortifications were. Eli's friendship with Amin al-Hafez proved very valuable. But changes were taking place in the Syrian Government that alarmed Eli. Eli expressed his fear and wish to terminate his assignment in Syria during his last visit to Israel in November Still, Israeli Intelligence asked him to return to Syria one more time.
The information he had been providing them for years was too good to forego. Eli did go back to Syria, but his behavior changed. He became far less careful in his transmissions to Israel, sometimes calling once or even twice a day - and almost always at the same time, at in the morning. The transmissions became longer as well. Some attributed this to a sense of cockiness despite the fears he had expressed in November , due to the ability and ease he had moved about in the highest echelons of Syrian power.
Others have attributed the carelessness to an almost suicidal tendency - perhaps, it was later surmised, he had been in the undercover world too long, but knew he couldn't get out of it. Because of that, perhaps he just tired of the whole charade.
I did not know the man. To my eyes he had no face; he did not even exist, for I knew nothing about him. I did not know whether he scratched his nose when he ate, whether he talked or kept quiet when he was making love, whether he gloried in his hate, whether he betrayed his wife or his God or his own future. All I knew was that he was an Englishman and my enemy. The two terms were synonymous. Always look at a window, and failing that look into the eyes of a man.
This teacher resource is based on the following edition: Night by Elie Wiesel, Bantam Books, , the day that all foreign Jews in Sighet are expelled, including Moshe. first part of the film (through the creation of Auschwitz) establishes an.
The Grammar Plus series provides students with short, clear grammar explanations, easy-to-follow rules, examples of how the language works and useful tables that make grammar easy to learn and revise.
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