File Name: handball rules and regulations 2017.zip
Handball also known as team handball , European handball or Olympic handball  is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each six outcourt players and a goalkeeper pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, and the team that scores more goals wins. The sport is usually played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in the forms of field handball , Czech handball which were more common in the past [ when?
The purpose of the League Rep s are not to referee the games. Team captains and their teams are expected to referee their own games accordingly and responsibly. League Rep s will step-in to make important calls and clarify rules at their own discretion. If issues arise, team captains are asked to speak with the League Rep s. No players except for captains should approach the League Rep s with issues.
To investigate the speeches of elite handball coaches about the current strategic-tactical configuration after the rule change that allows the use of the seventh court player in the attack. Four elite handball coaches were interviewed semi-structured with specific questions about the main theme of this study. The evolutionary process of sport is a constant phenomenon which most of the transformations occurs from changes in the way of playing, influenced by the technical, tactical and strategic improvement or by the elaboration and insertion of new rules 1 , 2.
In handball, an example of recent rule modification refers to the use of the additional court player. One strategic tactical action that was already being used was the participation of the goalkeeper as a court player, mainly in final situations of decisive matches to create the numerical superiority of the attack 3 , 4.
However, an effective rule modification since the Olympic Games allows seven court players to be at the same time on the court, as long as the team is without a goalkeeper 5. In other words, any court player may replace the goalkeeper during the offensive phase of own team, leaving their own goal empty.
The possibility of playing with seven court players may cause changes in tactical behavior of the teams in both attack and defense situations, especially if we consider that the spatial and temporal structures are directly related with the tactical behavior and the interaction of the players in the game context 6 , 7. The recent temporality of this change reflects in the current incipient scientific production on the use of the additional court player in handball, mostly through investigations that deepen in answers on the tactical understanding of the game with this new configuration and that bring statistical data from the use of match analysis.
Currently, research on this subject is still rare, and early work is still being published. Thus, much of the knowledge about the tactical interactions used from this new strategic possibility of handball is still being elaborated and experienced by coaches who work with elite teams, based on their perceptions and own analyzes.
Consequently, the access to the speeches of these coaches is an important source of knowledge considering the scenario presented above. The option of collecting information from elite handball coaches is justified by their ability to analyze the efficiency of player and team performances, both of the team they lead and of the opposing teams, to elaborate some strategic possibilities for future games 9. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the possibilities of changes in the dynamics and in the strategic understanding of the handball game from this change of rules as well as it becomes necessary to discuss the possible reorganizations of the individual and group tactical actions, the offensive, and defensive systems, by coaches and players.
Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the current strategic-tactical organization in handball concerning the use of the additional court player based on the speeches of elite coaches.
A qualitative research approach was adopted to search for elements from the experiences of the participants inserted in a sports context 10 and is exploratory because it considers the perspectives and knowledge of the participants that relate to the question investigated Four coaches three Brazilian and one Spanish were interviewed T1, T2, T3, and T4 , from a universe of seven possible coaches, whose experience in international championships is about All participants are graduates of Physical Education or equivalent internationally.
Only one coach does not have a postgraduate degree, and the others state that they have postgraduate degrees in sports training, management or science applied to sports. All the interviewees signed an Informed Consent Term, approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the local University under the number The interviews were scheduled in a free time provided by the coaches, in a private place and without noise for a clean voice record.
Throughout the interviews, we allowed new considerations related to the central problem of our study to emerge, addressing new questions in a particular way to each coach. The interviews were recorded in full and we used the soft textual transcription, which is done word by word, but clearing the text non-conforming expressions, making it coherent and simple to understand Speeches analysis was done by two researchers, both with more than 14 years of experience in handball as a teacher or coach , one of them teaching higher education in a private institution and the other researcher is a professor at a Brazilian federal university and responsible for the discipline of handball in this institution.
Both have researched on themes related to handball and sports pedagogy. According to Mayring 12 the interference of the researcher plain text is backed by their previous knowledge on the subject of research supported by their personal impressions and the theoretical framework guiding the study.
This aspect guarantees the possibility of condensing the information through processes of reduction and synthesis with the prevalence of the information in its quality and not the number of words present in the text, with the main care being the maintenance of the central ideas of the speeches. After the transcription of the interviews, a Qualitative Content Analysis was used to analyze the speeches. First data reduction was performed each one, in which the materials were read and paraphrased.
According to Mayring 12 , this is a form of reduction that allows the essential messages of the original text to be reproduced in a shorter text through generalization processes. Similar phrases are summarized in a single paraphrase that allows to substantially reduce the amount of information.
After this stage, the second data reduction was conducted, which, based on construction and integration, allowed the unification of the paraphrases of the respondents who were similar to each other in a single sentence that contained the same ideas, forming the answers-syntheses.
Coaches interviewed showed that there was no consensus on the general conjecture that the new rule brought in tactical structures of handball, at national or international levels. The rule is still very recent and few teams are using the 7x6, both in Brazil and in the world, and the male teams have used more than the female. T1, T2, T4. As it is something new the teams are still analyzing and studying how to use it, it needs time to know how its repercussion will be.
T2, T4. However, it is not yet well defined how the teams use that additional player, or what are the main strategies that will be adopted to use seven players in the attack. Nonetheless, using an additional player in handball is nothing new.
Garcia and Lorenzo 4 , in a review on the use of line-goalkeeper, identified that its use is, primarily, a strategy aiming at the numerical balance for the attacking team in cases of exclusions. In a study done with the matches of the European Handball Championship of , Musa, Modolo, Tsuji, Barreira, Morato, Menezes 3 observed the same tendency of the use of the line-goalkeeper in cases of exclusions and identified that their use was predominant in the last 10 minutes of the game.
Research on match analysis shows that defending in numerical superiority has a decisive effect on the final results of handball matches 13 , 14 , besides that the positional game in numerical equality can be a determinant aspect for the definition of the winner or loser of the match 6.
This contextualization on the line-goalkeeper and the rule change that currently allows seven players on the court to act in the attack, when replaced the goalkeeper, takes us to the next category of analysis of this study. In the second theme, on how teams have been using the new rule, coaches have raised some more critical situations regarding the use of the additional court player.
A unanimous finding of the new rule is that its use has been made, mainly, in situations of punishment, where the team suffers exclusion for 2 minutes and, to play in numerical equality in the attack, coaches use a court player in substitution to the goalkeeper. It has been used mainly in situations of exclusion for 2 minutes, to maintain 6x6 in the attack, which is bad, because when playing with the seventh player there is no more punishment in the attack situation, this punishment is only for half of the game, only for when it is in the defense.
T1, T2, T3, T4. From this information, we noticed that the change in the rule did not influence the strategies used by the teams so far, and the strategy of using the line-goalkeeper was already common 4 and only changed the dynamics of substitution.
With the new rule, any player can leave the game for the return of the goalkeeper, minimizing the risk of withdrawing the goalkeeper momentarily from the match, as it may return more easily. The advantage obtained by the team that was punished was widely criticized by the coaches interviewed, showing the dissatisfaction about the use of this strategy for this purpose. However, the teams already used this advantage in cases of exclusion using the line-goalkeeper 3 , In addition to the advantage obtained by the team that has been punished with the exclusion, there are also other particular moments of the matches that are influenced by the use of the seventh player.
The use of the seventh court player in the final minutes of the match is also not a recent strategy and therefore cannot be attributed to the new rule, but to the continuity of an earlier strategy in which the line-goalkeeper was used to create numerical superiority for the attack at that particular moment of the matches 4.
In this case, we assume that the rule was adapted to the previous strategies. However, according to T1, another strategy already consolidated for defense, such as using the individual defensive system to try to recover the ball quickly, can be hampered by the use of the seventh player:.
At the end of the game the teams that are losing, an alternative was to defend with the individual defensive system the whole court, and today if it does this has the seventh player and cannot do the individual defense. Even so, coaches were questioned about the overall game structure, whether the use of 7x6 could change the current organization of tactical structures in both attack and defense.
In this question, the coaches were cautious, saying they had doubts about whether this new rule would actually influence on already established tactical structures. Today it is difficult to imagine the slowest handball. I think the trend is to increase the use of 7x6, and will have the teams that will play well, but I do not think they will play the whole game, I think the benefits are more punctual, it is not a rule that will be used in all the situations There are items to be considered for the use of the seventh player as the technical level, the category, the suit due to greater responsibility with the ball that the 7x6 brings.
I think handball will not be a constant 7x6, this situation will be used in specific moments. However, in addition to the particular situations as exclusions and in the final minutes of the matches, other strategies for the use of the additional player were suggested by the coaches. Although they say that more time is needed to figure out how to build tactical structures with seven players in the attack, coaches already identify some manifestations both in attack and defense when the game is in positional phase.
There is still no well-structured structure of how to use this seventh player in the attack, some teams do without an organized tactical action, with the use of a second pivot, one being more centralized and another more lateralized, at specific and punctual moments of the game, on the opposite side of the ball for rapid reversal to the sector where there is numerical superiority T1, T2, T4. The use of the second pivot, according to the coaches, seems to be one of the features most often used by the few teams that play with seven players in attack.
However, coaches have made important considerations about how to play in numerical superiority. The use is more punctual in situations, for example, that the team is having difficulty making a point. The game in numerical superiority is different from that in numerical equality. In superiority it is not necessary to be so fast, it is necessary to find the space empty and to look for the continuity to find the player more because one already has an advantage.
In the game, equality there is the combat, tries to get the advantage by the movement of the ball, creating the superiority.
Playing in 7x6 loses this feature of the game T1, T2, T3. The coaches understand that there is a change in the internal logic of the handball game when one team has numerical superiority. In this way, the actions that consist of acquiring numerical and spatial advantage will change, because with numerical superiority in attack the logic is that the additional player is already unmarked.
In this sense, when in numerical equality, the teams strategically transform the offensive systems to induce errors in the defense and thus gain the advantage to be able to score In numerical superiority, the offensive players will need to have a speed of passes to find a free player to throw.
Studies show that the attack positioned in numerical superiority has obtained a greater advantage in matches of handball, mainly against defensive systems structured in a line 7. If numerical superiority interferes with the logic of the offensive game, possibly the defensive strategy will also have changes.
In numerical equality, there is a very wide variety of defensive systems that can be used in handball, such as closed or open defenses 17 , in one, two, three lines or individual defensive system Though, in particular, defenses in-depth that try to steal the ball through pressing the offensive players, the domain of a larger court space is worst when in numerically inferiority 14 , When asked about the characteristics of defenses in a context where the seventh court player is most often used, coaches agree that their use will limit the use of more open defenses or have characteristics of dissuasion.
With the seventh player, the defense focusses on blocks, more retracted, at ball line. It will not be possible to defend as open, always have to have a player in 6 meters. It is a tendency to use , we will have to close the zone closer to the goal, reducing the possibilities of open and combined defenses, I have not yet seen a team playing against the seventh player using the T1, T2, T3, T4. Only one of the coaches T1 , who told that it will be more difficult to maintain open defenses like , stated that he does not believe that in the future handball will have a system hegemony, stating that teams develop forms to defend on systems with at least one advanced player, as in the case of the system.
I do not think it will have a system alone . Some teams maintain the advanced defender in the 7x6 to take the mobility of the ball, it is more exposed, but it takes the speed of the ball of the attack.
We observe that in handball, even before the inclusion of the additional court player rule, teams already tended to make defenses on a line, such as Studies show that in high-level adult matches defensive systems like and are the most used 7 , 20 , revealing the tendency of teams to use more closed defenses. However, the analysis of the use of the defensive system in lines does not provide an up-to-date view of these systems.
Despite the advantageous situation, you have to value continuity, such as the quick exchange of a player of court with the goalkeeper after losing possession of the ball, on the contrary, will have problems with the return T2. In this speech is perceived as a concern with one of the determining elements of a handball match: the counterattack. In a study with longitudinal analysis of international championships, it was observed that the teams with efficient counterattack are better classified in the international rankings In the current scenario, it remains the practice of using the additional player to maintain the numerical equality in the attack, specifically in situations of exclusion and, to reach numerical superiority in decisive moments of the matches.
In a future perspective, coaches do not consider it a possibility to have matches in which the situation of seven offensive players is prioritized all the time and possibly keep their use very close to the current structure. From this perspective, this study is not limited to this moment, and it is necessary to expand researches on these possible changes for a longer time, in order to identify which influences will occur over the years.
Pedagogy of sport: contexts, evolution and perspectives. Seco JDDR. The beginnings of the XXI century: evolution and tendencies of the game.
A long, historical cooperation exists between sport and the media. Rules have been changed and playing conditions adapted to add to the glamor and spectacle of sport, thus making sport more marketable, enhancing media coverage and making it more appealing for the viewer. In the history of handball, rule changes have been introduced for the same purpose. There is no doubt that among the rule modifications introduced by the International Handball Federation IHF in , substituting the goalkeeper for another court player during an attack without wearing a special shirt has had the greatest impact on the game in recent times. The main aim of the study was to carry out empirical research in order to analyze the recent rule modifications by the IHF, particularly when substituting the goalkeeper for an extra court player during an attack. The World Championship in France provided an ideal opportunity to collate data in order to explore how often and effectively teams used this rule change at the latest world event. In addition, we have also sought out the opinions of elite coaches concerning the state of current rules in handball and what they would change in order to make this sport discipline more marketable for the media and for spectators.
4. 1 Introduction. This document outlines the rules and regulations for the 18 England Handball A manual scoring system may be employed. • A separate.
The board consists of eight members, four of which come from FIFA, and the other four coming from England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales — all countries that contributed to the development of the sport. For this reason, we have prepared a simplified version below that should allow you to learn the basic rules of soccer. It is also important to note that although FIFA publishes an established set of rules, they are often modified by national and regional leagues and organizations. With that, you should ensure that you inquire with your coach, fellow players or league manager regarding any rules that deviate from the norm. IFAB currently acknowledges 17 laws of soccer that are the standard for any professional or international match played.
The study aimed to identify factors predicting self-efficacy in a sample of Italian handball referees. The main hypothesis was that perception of teamwork efficacy would be a significant predictor of self-efficacy in handball referees. The study underlines the importance of teamwork or co-refereeing as it relates to enjoyment and awareness in officiating and how it enhances the psychological well-being of handball referees. Future studies should investigate the relationship between factors influencing perceived teamwork efficacy and officiating performance outcome. The tasks that referees perform are very complex given that they have to make quick decisions and solve conflicts, often accepting mistakes that might have been made as a result of their quick decision-making meanwhile keeping order and dealing with athletes, coaches, team managers, fans, and the media. Rainey et al. Cuskelly et al.
Taking more than 3 steps, or longer than 3 seconds, is one of the. Return Tv, img. An amazing combination of netball, soccer and basketball, handball is a fast-paced game that requires strength, speed, agility, and team chemistry. Dragonlance War Of Souls Timeline, Marsh Farm Riots , Tiger Group Ceo, The only object that is used is a small ball handball , which must be of leather or another synthetic material that reaches a certain weight, in order to be better handled by the players and for a better launch of it.
To investigate the speeches of elite handball coaches about the current strategic-tactical configuration after the rule change that allows the use of the seventh court player in the attack. Four elite handball coaches were interviewed semi-structured with specific questions about the main theme of this study. The evolutionary process of sport is a constant phenomenon which most of the transformations occurs from changes in the way of playing, influenced by the technical, tactical and strategic improvement or by the elaboration and insertion of new rules 1 , 2. In handball, an example of recent rule modification refers to the use of the additional court player. One strategic tactical action that was already being used was the participation of the goalkeeper as a court player, mainly in final situations of decisive matches to create the numerical superiority of the attack 3 , 4.
Росио нигде не. Дверь, ведущая в ванную, закрыта. - Prostituiert? - Немец бросил боязливый взгляд на дверь в ванную.
Беккер поднял руку к свету и вгляделся в выгравированные на золоте знаки. Его взгляд не фокусировался, и он не мог прочитать надпись, но, похоже, она сделана по-английски. Первая буква вроде бы О, или Q, или ноль: глаза у него так болели. что он не мог разобрать, но все-таки кое-как прочитал первые буквы, В них не было никакого смысла.
Внезапно он почувствовал страх, которого никогда не испытывал .
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